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Why did Revolutions take place in 1848 on the continent? Unresolved Political Rights Agricultural Conditions Industrialization Nationalism Role of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Why did Revolutions take place in 1848 on the continent? Unresolved Political Rights Agricultural Conditions Industrialization Nationalism Role of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why did Revolutions take place in 1848 on the continent? Unresolved Political Rights Agricultural Conditions Industrialization Nationalism Role of the Domino Effect Why Revolution doesn’t take place in Britain? Workers’ Chartism of the 1830s and 1840s Failure of Workers’ Charter vs. victory of middle classes by 1846 Goals of the revolution Why did revolutions fail? Revolutions of 1848

2 Why Revolutions in 1848? Why did this not happen in Britain? What were the goals? Why did the majority of revolutions fail? What lasting impact did revolutions have on Europe? Revolutions of 1848

3 Illustrated London News (20 Feb 1847) Why did Revolutions take place in 1848? Unresolved political rights Agricultural conditions Industrialization Nationalism Role of the domino effect

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5 Why violent revolution doesn’t take place in Britain Chartism (1830s & 1840s) Chartism (1830s & 1840s) Working-class radicals Working-class radicals Change from within the political system Change from within the political system Six points of the Charter Six points of the Charter –Universal manhood suffrage –Equal electoral districts –No property qualification for MPs –Payment for MPs –Annual parliaments –Secret ballot Presentation of Charter three times (1839, 1842, 1848) Presentation of Charter three times (1839, 1842, 1848) Ultimate failure of the Charter Ultimate failure of the Charter –Internal Divisions –Role of Government to stamp out Chartist Factions

6 Last Great Chartist Demonstration, Kennington Common, London (1848)

7 Goals of the Revolution in France, 1848 Goals of the revolution differed depending on your class: Bourgeois liberal goals: Constitutional representative governments Constitutional representative governments Limited democracy Limited state interference Nationalism Working-class radical republican goals: Constitutional representative governments Universal male suffrage Activist state Nationalism

8 From Restoration to Revolution Louis XVIII ( ) the Constitutional Charter Louis XVIII ( ) the Constitutional Charter Charles X ( ) attempts at Grandeur Charles X ( ) attempts at Grandeur –July 1830: July Ordinances 1830 Revolution and the July Monarchy 1830 Revolution and the July Monarchy Louis Philippe: the “Bourgeois King” ( ) Louis Philippe: the “Bourgeois King” ( ) Louis XVIII ( )

9 Temporary alliances between middle and laboring classes fade with victory of Louis Philippe Eugene Delacroix, “Liberty Leading the People” (1830)

10 Reign of Louis-Philippe ( ) July Monarchy July Monarchy “Bourgeois” king “Bourgeois” king Reforms: Reforms: –Adopted the Tricolor flag of the revolution –Abolished censorship –Worked with the parliament –Electoral Reform Louis-Philippe’s reforms helped mainly the upper middle classes (wealthy industrialists & financiers). Louis-Philippe’s reforms helped mainly the upper middle classes (wealthy industrialists & financiers).

11 Reign of Louis-Philippe ( ) Industrialization took off during the reign of Louis-Philippe. Industrialization took off during the reign of Louis-Philippe. Louis-Philippe did little to help the plight of workers. Louis-Philippe did little to help the plight of workers. Lyon Uprisings (1831 & 1834) Lyon Uprisings (1831 & 1834) Louis-Philippe became increasingly reluctant to grant democratic reforms. Louis-Philippe became increasingly reluctant to grant democratic reforms. Frustration finally erupted in February 1848 when a cross-class alliance overthrew Louis- Philippe Frustration finally erupted in February 1848 when a cross-class alliance overthrew Louis- Philippe

12 February Revolution in France On 22 February, a grand political banquet was planned in Paris. On 22 February, a grand political banquet was planned in Paris. –Louis-Philippe banned this banquet. –Barricades went up. Louis-Philippe called out the National Guard. Louis-Philippe called out the National Guard. Without the support of the National Guard, Louis-Philippe was backed into a corner and began to make concessions. Without the support of the National Guard, Louis-Philippe was backed into a corner and began to make concessions. Provisional Government established. Provisional Government established. –Led by a group of moderate & radical republicans. Immediate Goals: Immediate Goals: –Elections for a Constituent Assembly by universal manhood suffrage. –New constitution (Republic) –Abolished slavery –Abolished the death penalty –Established the 10-hour workday

13 The Course of the 1848 Revolution: January: Palermo (Italy) February: Paris March: Berlin, Munich, Vienna, Venice, Milan, Cracow In Austria Kaiser Franz Joseph 1849: Revolt in Hungary suppressed with Russian help

14 Metternich forced to flee in March 1848

15 Revolutions in Europe Austria: Austria: –Meternich flees the revolution  Ferdinand deposed, choice of his nephew Franz Joseph II ( ) –Hungarian revolt suppressed with Russian help  Nicholas I, “the policeman of Europe.” Germany: Germany: –Unification of German States  Large Germany (Grossdeutsch), or Little Germany (Kleindeutsch) Frankfort Parliament offers imperial crown to Prussian king Italy: Revolts in Naples, Papal States, Tuscany, Venice Italy: Revolts in Naples, Papal States, Tuscany, Venice –Goal: Unification under the House of Savoy –Austrians reassert control in Tuscany & Venetia

16 Revolutionaries in city of Wartburg 1848

17 Split among Revolutionaries Spring a split developed between Moderate Republicans & radical groups (Left Republicans & Socialists). Spring a split developed between Moderate Republicans & radical groups (Left Republicans & Socialists). 23 April 1848 – Elections to the National Assembly. Moderate Republicans were victorious. 23 April 1848 – Elections to the National Assembly. Moderate Republicans were victorious. 15 May 1848 – People of Paris stormed the National Assembly. 15 May 1848 – People of Paris stormed the National Assembly. May 1848 – Marked the end of the truly revolutionary period of the Revolution. May 1848 – Marked the end of the truly revolutionary period of the Revolution. The new revolutionary government tried to alleviate unemployment through a government-sponsored works program (National Workshops). The new revolutionary government tried to alleviate unemployment through a government-sponsored works program (National Workshops). Issue of the Workshops was the lightening rod that divided the revolutionaries. Issue of the Workshops was the lightening rod that divided the revolutionaries. June Days (23-26 June 1848) June Days (23-26 June 1848) To many Europeans, June Days marked an important departure in revolutionary politics. Now the new struggle: bourgeoisie vs. the working classes. To many Europeans, June Days marked an important departure in revolutionary politics. Now the new struggle: bourgeoisie vs. the working classes. Karl Marx: “Only after baptism in the blood of the June insurgents did the tricolor become the flag of the European revolution—the red flag.”

18 The Squeeze: Economic recession and social welfare 45 percent tax, national workshops, educational schemes Elections, April 1848: Conservatives in the majority Worker clubs of the Spring 1848 Counter-Revolution, June 1848 Conservatives: Legitimists, Orleanists, Bonapartists Louis Napoleon’s election, December 1848 Social Democrats and the Mountains, Louis Napoleon’s coup, December 1851 The Second French Republic

19 December 1848 Elections in France Bonaparte5,500,000 Moderate republican1,500,000 Radical republican 371,000 Socialist 36,000

20 After the June Days in France June Days marked a victory for the Moderate Republicans. June Days marked a victory for the Moderate Republicans. Each month grew more conservative. Each month grew more conservative. 4 Nov – Second French Republic proclaimed 4 Nov – Second French Republic proclaimed 10 December 1848 – Presidential Elections held. Nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte, Louis-Napoléon, won. 10 December 1848 – Presidential Elections held. Nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte, Louis-Napoléon, won. His greatest support came from the peasantry. His greatest support came from the peasantry. March 1850 – Falloux Law March 1850 – Falloux Law 2 December 1851 – Louis-Napoléon’s coup d’état 2 December 1851 – Louis-Napoléon’s coup d’état 2 December 1852 – Louis-Napoléon assumed the title of Emperor Napoléon III 2 December 1852 – Louis-Napoléon assumed the title of Emperor Napoléon III Conservative order had been re-established. Conservative order had been re-established.

21 Revolution in Berlin (Prussia) 3 March 1848 – Revolution broke out in the Rhineland 3 March 1848 – Revolution broke out in the Rhineland 15 March Revolutionaries revolted in Berlin, demanding liberal democratic reforms. 15 March Revolutionaries revolted in Berlin, demanding liberal democratic reforms. King of Prussia (Frederick William IV) made concessions to the revolutionaries. King of Prussia (Frederick William IV) made concessions to the revolutionaries. Soon afterwards, the other leaders of German states also gave their support for liberal democratic & nationalist reforms. Soon afterwards, the other leaders of German states also gave their support for liberal democratic & nationalist reforms. Believing that the kings & princes were committed to a united Germany, bourgeois liberal leaders began to meet in Frankfurt to write a new constitution for a united Germany. (Frankfurt Parliament) Believing that the kings & princes were committed to a united Germany, bourgeois liberal leaders began to meet in Frankfurt to write a new constitution for a united Germany. (Frankfurt Parliament) –Supported liberal democracy –Little Germany or Large Germany? –Supported a constitutional monarchy (under the leadership of the King of Prussia) & a united Germany without Austria.

22 Police Breaking Up a Demonstration, Berlin, 1848

23 Revolution in the Austrian (Hapbsurg) Empire While many revolutionaries advocated liberalism, most were nationalists. While many revolutionaries advocated liberalism, most were nationalists. Calls for liberal democracy centered in Vienna Calls for liberal democracy centered in Vienna 12 March 1848, Revolution broke out in Vienna 12 March 1848, Revolution broke out in Vienna Nationalist Revolutions Nationalist Revolutions Czechs, Hungarians, & Italians, in particular, rejected the dominance of a foreign, German-speaking, ruler. Czechs, Hungarians, & Italians, in particular, rejected the dominance of a foreign, German-speaking, ruler.

24 Hungarian (Magyar) & Czech Revolutions Most powerful of the minorities & the most successful of the revolutionaries. Most powerful of the minorities & the most successful of the revolutionaries. Louis (Lajos) Kossuth ( ) Louis (Lajos) Kossuth ( ) 3 March 1848 – Revolution broke out in Budapest 3 March 1848 – Revolution broke out in Budapest Frightened Metternich, who quickly agreed to allow the Hungarians to establish a liberal democratic parliament. Frightened Metternich, who quickly agreed to allow the Hungarians to establish a liberal democratic parliament. March Laws: Representation, freedom of the press, religious freedom, equal justice before the law, taxation of the nobility. March Laws: Representation, freedom of the press, religious freedom, equal justice before the law, taxation of the nobility. May 1848 – Czechs revolted, demanding political autonomy similar to what the Hungarians had received. May 1848 – Czechs revolted, demanding political autonomy similar to what the Hungarians had received.

25 Retreat of the Hapsburg Empire Seeing what was happening throughout Europe, the Austrian Emperor (Ferdinand I) began to grant liberal concessions. Seeing what was happening throughout Europe, the Austrian Emperor (Ferdinand I) began to grant liberal concessions. –March 1848 – King dismissed Metternich –25 April 1848 – King agreed to a constitutional monarchy –Granted Universal manhood suffrage –Emancipated the serfs 15 May 1848 – Another wave of demonstrations broke out in Vienna 15 May 1848 – Another wave of demonstrations broke out in Vienna May – Emperor fled to Innsbruck (Austria) May – Emperor fled to Innsbruck (Austria) Beginning in the summer of 1848, Austria reasserted her dominance over the revolutionaries. Beginning in the summer of 1848, Austria reasserted her dominance over the revolutionaries. –June 1848 – Emperor’s army crushed the Czech revolution –October 1848 – Emperor crushed the revolt in Vienna. –September – Emperor sent troops into Hungary to suppress the revolution. –December 1948 – Emperor abdicated in favor of his nephew (Francis Joseph I) who was determined to suppress these revolutions. –March 1849 – Austrian forces conquered Hungary & imposed military rule. –June 1849 – Austrian joins with Prussia to crush revolutions in the Rhineland, Saxony, & Bavaria.

26 Milan, 1848 Fighting at the Tosa Gate, 1848 Note green, white and red flag Flag of Cisalpine republic of Napoleonic Period

27 Revolution in Italy January & February 1848 – Revolts erupted in Naples & Turin January & February 1848 – Revolts erupted in Naples & Turin March 1848 – Guerra Santa (Holy War) March 1848 – Guerra Santa (Holy War) 22 March 1848 – Revolution broke out & Venetian Republic was established. 22 March 1848 – Revolution broke out & Venetian Republic was established. –Came under the leadership of Garibaldi March 1848 – Papal States were given a constitution March 1848 – Papal States were given a constitution –February 1849 – Roman Republic proclaimed under the leadership of Mazzini. Goals: Liberalism & National Unification Goals: Liberalism & National Unification Led by Charles Albert (King of Piedmont-Sardinia) Led by Charles Albert (King of Piedmont-Sardinia) 23 March 1848 – Piedmont-Sardina declared war on Austria 23 March 1848 – Piedmont-Sardina declared war on Austria New Republics: Venice, Tuscany, & Rome New Republics: Venice, Tuscany, & Rome June 1848 – Austrians defeated Piedmont-Sardinia. Austrians re- established control over Lombardy & Venetia, destroying the republics. June 1848 – Austrians defeated Piedmont-Sardinia. Austrians re- established control over Lombardy & Venetia, destroying the republics.

28 The Suppression of the 1848 Revolutions Why do the Revolutions Fail? Problem of Idealism among Revolutionaries Military Power Weak Alliances

29 Lasting Significance of 1848 While there was a lasting challenge of liberal and radical programsWhile there was a lasting challenge of liberal and radical programs Persistence of old regimePersistence of old regime “Democracy” and 2nd Republic in France under Louis Napoleon, president ( ) then Emperor Napoleon III ( )“Democracy” and 2nd Republic in France under Louis Napoleon, president ( ) then Emperor Napoleon III ( ) “Representative” government (Landtag) in Prussia“Representative” government (Landtag) in Prussia Emigration of 1848’ers to United StatesEmigration of 1848’ers to United States Eventual conservative cooption of liberal and radical platformsEventual conservative cooption of liberal and radical platforms


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