2 Members and Representatives Members and Reps: “Five European Great Powers”Austria- rulerPrussia- rulerRussia- rulerGreat Britain- foreign ministerFrance- foreign minister
3 GoalsEstablished lasting peace and stability in EuropePrevent future French aggressionRestore balance of powerRestore royal families to thrones
4 Actions Taken Formed the kingdom of the Netherlands Created the German ConfederationRecognized independence of SwitzerlandAdded Genoa to the Kingdom of SardiniaRequired France to return territories conquered by Napoleon (but left France a major power)Affirmed the principle of legitimacy
5 Legacy Short term: Conservatives regained control of governments Triggered revolts in coloniesLong term:Created an age of peace in EuropeDiminished the power of FranceIncreased the power of Britain and PrussiaSparked the growth of nationalism
6 Explain Klemens von Metternich’s efforts to create peace and stability in Europe (balance of power, Concert of Europe)Sought to maintain peace between European nations by creating a balance of power among rival countries so no country would be a threat to the others.Set up a series of alliances called the Concert of Europe to prevent revolutions, which required nations to help one another if a revolution erupted.
8 1.French citizens’ armies win their revolution for liberty and equality Outcome:fueled nationalist movements and revolutions throughout Europe
9 2. Greeks revolt against the Ottoman Turks. Outcome:a joint British, French and Russian fleet defeated the OttomansGreece gains its independence
10 3. Nationalist groups in Budapest, Prague, and Vienna demand independence and self- government. Outcome:Leads to the forced resignation of MetternichTriggers liberal uprisings throughout the German statesRevolutionaries’ failure to unite eventually leads to a return of conservatism
11 4. Charles X tries to set up an absolute monarchy in France. Outcome:Riots break out which force Charles to flee to BritainWas replaced with Louis- PhilippeA supporter of liberal reforms
12 5. Paris mobs overthrow monarchy of Louis Philippe. Outcome:A republican government is set upFactions turn to violence, resulting in bloody battles
13 6. Louis- Napoleon Bonaparte is elected president of France and later assumes the title of Emperor Napoleon IIIOutcome:Under his strong rule, prosperity, peace and stability are restored in FranceSon of Louis Bonaparte- Napoleon’s brother (He was Napoleon’s nephew)Napoleon I’s son became Napoleon II but was in Austria when he was proclaimed emperor of France probably never knew about it he was only 4yrs.(6/22- 7/07/1815)
14 7. In the Crimean War, Czar Nicholas I threatens to take over part of the Ottoman Empire Outcome:Russia was defeated by combined forces of France, Great Britain, Sardinia, and the OttomansAfter the war, Alexander II began to modernize Russia
15 8. Alexander II issues the Edict of Emancipation Outcomes:Serfs were legally free but remained tied to the land though debts
17 How did nationalism lead to the breakup of these empires? Austro- HungarianNationalists disputes led to the division of the empire into two states, Austria and Hungary.After WWI the empire divided into separate nation states.2. RussianNationalist feeling of non- Russian peoples fueled by Russification weakened the empire which fell as a result of war and revolution.3. Ottoman EmpireConservative Turks, angered by the Ottoman policy of granting equal citizenship to nationalist groups caused tension that weakened and eventually broke up the empire.
18 How did each of the following help unify Italy? 4. Camillo di CavourPrime minister of the Sardinian kingWorked to expand the empireThrough war, alliances, and help of nationalist rebels he eventually unified Italy5. Giuseppe GaribaldiCaptured Sicily and united the southern areas of Italy he conquered with the kingdom of Piedmont- Sardinia6. King Victor EmmanuelPulled together northern and southern regions of Italy and took over the Papal states unifying Italy
19 How did each of the following lead to German unification? 7. Policy of realpolitikThis policy of though politics allowed Bismarck to expand Prussia and achieve dominance over Germany.8. Seven Week’s WarVictory over Austria gave Prussia control over northern Germany.9. Franco- Prussian WarVictory over France motivated southern Germany to accept Prussian leadership.