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Crisis and Compromise in Britain 1815-1848. Stirrings of Discontent Popular protests in favor of reform swept the country from 1815-1819 Poor harvests.

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Presentation on theme: "Crisis and Compromise in Britain 1815-1848. Stirrings of Discontent Popular protests in favor of reform swept the country from 1815-1819 Poor harvests."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crisis and Compromise in Britain

2 Stirrings of Discontent Popular protests in favor of reform swept the country from Poor harvests led to grain riots by the poor Mass meeting was held at St. Peter’s Fields in Manchester in 1819 Police fired on the protestors, killing 11 and injuring 100’s

3 Peterloo Massacre-1819

4 Parliament passed the Six Acts that banned demonstrations, suspended habeas corpus, and restricted freedom of the press 1820’s continued with economic bad times and riots in northern England over low wages In 1830, food riots and machine breaking spread to southern England

5 Passage of the Reform Bill Election of 1830 reduced the conservative majority in Parliament 5,000 petitions were brought to Parliament attacking the landed elite Lords resisted this and rioting ensued William IV exerted political pressure on the Lords Reform Bill passed in 1832

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7 Accomplishments of the Reform Bill Eliminated “rotten boroughs” and “pocket boroughs” Reduced minimum franchise requirement Doubled the electorate What had been achieved in France by revolution in 1830 was achieved in Britain in 1832 by reform

8 Repeal of the Corn Laws Protectionist Corn Laws were passed by Parliament in 1815 and 1828 Bad harvests of increased pressure for repeal Anti-Corn Law League formed in 1839 Repeal of Corn Laws 1846 proved a decisive victory for economic liberalism

9 The Chartist Movement “Great Charter” called for universal male suffrage, salaries for elected officials, annual elections, etc. Rejected by Parliament in 1839 and 1842 Reflected the limits of reform in Britain

10 Chartist meeting at Kennington Common, England-1848

11 The Revolutions of 1848

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13 France

14 Origins Reformers planned a great banquet to be accompanied by street demonstrations in Feb., 1848 Gov’t banned all such meetings Barricades were then built by citizens throughout the city Nat’l Guard refused to act against these

15 After 20 protestors were killed outside PM Guizot’s home, rioting erupted in the streets Louis Philippe abdicated and escaped to England Radicals poured into the Chamber of Deputies and claimed France a republic

16 The Second Republic “Political republicans” (7) dominated “social republicans” in the new Provisional Government Nat’l Workshops were established as a concession to social republicans Labor Commission failed to enact a ten hour day

17 Constituent Assembly was elected by universal male suffrage Social republicans were marginalized in the new gov’t Nat’l Workshops had mobilized the working class Coup was organized by Nat’l Workshop members, but failed

18 Constituent Assembly was now determined to crush socialism and class warfare broke out during the “Bloody June Days” Revolt was repressed with 10,000 killed and 11,000 deported

19 The Second Empire Assembly decided to create a strong executive that would keep order Louis Napoleon was elected by an overwhelming majority Louis presented himself as a friend of the people and supported universal male suffrage

20 Louis staged a successful coup in 1851 and was elected for a 10 year term In 1852, Louis proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III

21 Austria

22 Origins News of the revolution in France reached the Austria in March, 1848 Workers and students rose in revolt in Vienna Metternich fled to Britain Revolution now spread through the Austrian Empire and Germany

23 Revolutionary momentum had faded by June Insurrection in Prague was put down by force and the Slav congress fled Lombardy and Venetia in Italy which had declared independence were also reconquered Magyar revolt in Hungary was repressed

24 The Impact of 1848 Marked the end of the era of liberal revolution that had begun in 1789 Initiative passed temporarily to conservative political groups Middle classes became more conservative Working classes realized they needed more effective forms of organization


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