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CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1815 LED BY PRINCE KLEMENS VON METTERNICH PURPOSE –Restore Europe to its pre-1789 status quo CREATION OF CONCERT OF EUROPE –Peacetime.

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Presentation on theme: "CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1815 LED BY PRINCE KLEMENS VON METTERNICH PURPOSE –Restore Europe to its pre-1789 status quo CREATION OF CONCERT OF EUROPE –Peacetime."— Presentation transcript:

1 CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1815 LED BY PRINCE KLEMENS VON METTERNICH PURPOSE –Restore Europe to its pre-1789 status quo CREATION OF CONCERT OF EUROPE –Peacetime alliance –Periodic summit meeting to work out difference –Military intervention to put down revolution or to prevent revolutionary outbreak CONGRESS SET UP SYSTEM DESIGNED TO DESTROY MEMORY OF FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE IDEAS AND PRINCIPLES IT HAD UNLEASHED

2 REVOLUTION OF 1830 CHARLES X –Stupid –Refused to compromise with reality of French Revolution –Provoked uprising in Paris THREE GLORIOUS DAYS – JULY 1830 –Charles X forced to flee to England Charles X

3 THE JULY MONARCHY Middle Class selects Louis Philippe as new “King of the French” –Related to Bourbon royal family but sympathetic to middle class Selected over opposition of common people who wanted a Republic –Constitutional monarchy with more liberal monarch News of July Revolution in France sparks revolts elsewhere Lesson: artificial status quo set up by Congress of Vienna could be successfully challenged, given the right circumstances Louis Philippe,

4 OPPOSITION TO THE JULY MONARCHY GROWING OPPOSITION TO JULY MONARCHY –Too favorable to middle class –Workers (many socialists due to ill-effects of early Industrial Revolution) –Republicans (young college students who favored republican form of government) –Peasants remain apathetic and even hostile to socialists BANQUET CAMPAIGN –Way to mobilize support given lack of other legal means

5 REVOLUTION AGAIN OUTBREAK OF REVOLUTION IN PARIS IN FEBRUARY 1848 –Promoted by government cancellation of big banquet in Paris –February –Louis Philippe forced to flee to England

6 THE SECOND REPUBLIC Republicans establish Provisional Government –Run France until constitutional convention was elected and did its job –Contained several socialist members Problem: Republic will not survive without support of peasants, who were hostile to socialists Result: socialists squeezed out of government and socialist programs abandoned

7 TROUBLE JUNE DAYS –Socialist workers in Paris rise up to halt slipping position –Crushed in one week –Destroys socialists as a political factor for 20 years NEW CONSTITUTION IMPLEMENTED –Universal manhood suffrage –Elected president (one 7 year term) –Single house legislature (800 members)

8 LOUIS NAPOLEON BONAPARTE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION –Louis Napoleon Bonaparte wins landslide victory –December 1848 –Uses presidential office to become sole ruler of France COUP D’ETAT OF DECEMBER 1851 –Uses troops to disband legislature and proclaim himself Prince President for Life –Proclaimed himself emperor one year later– NAPOLEON III

9 SECOND EMPIRE, France enjoyed prosperity – otherwise, a disaster Manipulated political system Adventurous and foolhardy foreign policy Franco-Prussian War of 1870 –Defeat and capture of Napoleon III –September 4, 1870 – Second Empire overthrown

10 BIRTH OF THE THIRD REPUBLIC March – May 1871 Paris Commune The Third Republic –Parliamentary regime with most power concentrated in the lower house of a two- house legislature –Plagued by instability and scandal –

11 1848 IN THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE NEWS FROM PARIS SPARKS REVOLT IN VIENNA INDEPENDENCE REVOLTS ERUPT IN HUNGARY, BOHEMIA, AND ITALY DIVISIONS AMONG REVOLUTIONARIES ALLOW CONSERVATIVES TO SUCCESSFULLY COUNTERATTACK EMPIRE ATTEMPTS SEVERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REORGANIZATIONS AFTER 1849 –DUAL MONARCHY (1867) –REMAINS REACTIONARY AND ARCHAIC

12 CREATION OF ITALY LED BY KINGDOM OF PIEDMONT- SARDINIA CAMILLO DI CAVOUR ENERGETIC AND CLEVER EMPLOYED WHATEVER WOULD WORK –DIPLOMACY –CLEVER MANUEVERS –WAR KINGDOM OF ITALY CREATED BY 1870 UNITED AND INDEPENDENT KINGDOM OF ITALY NEVER LIVES UP TO HOPE

13 GERMANY IN 1848 SPARKED BY NEWS FROM PARIS REVOLTS IN MANY GERMAN CAPITALS—INCLUDING BERLIN FORMATION OF FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY DIVISIONS AMONG REVOLUTIONARIES AND MEMBERS OF ASSEMBLY ALLOW CONSERVATIVES TO COUNTERATTACK REVOLUTION DEAD IN GERMANY BY 1849

14 CREATION OF THE SECOND REICH UNIFICATION MOVEMENT LED BY PRUSSIA OTTO VON BISMARCK BLOOD AND IRON –War with Denmark (1864) –War with Austrian Empire (1866) –Franco-Prussian War (1870) JANUARY 1871—SECOND REICH ESTABLISHED –Constitutional monarchy on surface –Old-fashioned monarchy underneath –Most powerful state in Europe by 1914

15 SUMMARY Revolutions of 1848 proved system devised by Congress of Vienna was dead But the Revolutions cannot be considered an unqualified success Basic reason for failure was lack of unity within revolutionary movements –Alliance of middle-class republicans and socialist workers –Cooperated as long as they had a common goal –Unity collapsed once goal had been attained Became divided over what to do next Unable to resist conservative counterattacks


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