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The Revoluti ons Of 1848 “The Springtime of Peoples”

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1 The Revoluti ons Of 1848 “The Springtime of Peoples”

2 Pre-1848 Tensions GEconomies were in shambles  unemployment increased rapidly (esp. among artisans) GCrop failures led to mass hunger  esp. after Irish Potato Blight (1845) GIndustrialization  workers not rewarded for labor GIdeological Challenges  Liberalism, nationalism, democracy, socialism, romanticism GRepressive Measures  Carlsbad Decrees [Aus.]  Six Acts [Eng.]  Secret police created in many European states.

3 No Coherent Organized Revolutions GMany different reasons for revolutionary activities.  Reactions to long- and short-term causes. GCompeting ideologies in different countries. GDifferent revolutionary leaders, aims, and goals in different countries. GSome countries had no revolutions:  England.  Russia.


5 1848 Revolutio ns: Case Studies


7 Paris : To the Barricades Again! The “June Days”

8 France, 1848 France, 1848 GCauses:  Louis-Philippe’s monarchy is overthrown by angry mobs in Paris  Moderates in the resulting provisional gov’t close Louis Blanc’s national workshops GIdeology(ies):  Liberalism & Socialism GGoal(s):  New French Republic & universal male suffrage (bourgeoisie)  Guarantee the right to work for all citizens (artisans & workers GResults:  Second French Republic formed w/ unicameral legislature & strong president  Louis-Napoleon elected first president

9 The Hungarian Revolution, 1848

10 Hungary, 1848 Hungary, 1848 GCauses:  News of Revolution in France inspired Hungarian liberals led by Louis Kossuth to agitate for “commonwealth” status GIdeology(ies):  Liberalism  Nationalism GGoal(s):  Willing to keep Hapsburg monarch but wanted their own legislature GResults:  Emperor Ferdinand I abdicates in favor of Francis Joseph  New Hungarian constitution alienated other nationalities living w/in its borders  Austrian military crushes the revolt w/ help of 140,000 Russian troops

11 Vienna, 1848: The Liberal Revolution

12 Vienna, 1848 Vienna, 1848 GCauses:  News of revolution in France inspired students & workers, guided by middle-class liberals, to take Vienna GIdeology(ies):  Liberalism GGoal(s):  Liberal constitution GResults:  Metternich fled  Emperor Ferdinand I initially promises reforms  Revolt crushed by Austrian military (June)

13 Bohemian Revolution, 1848

14 Bohemia, 1848 Bohemia, 1848 GCauses:  News of revolution in France inspired Czech nationalists to demand their own gov’t (Pan- Slavism or Pan-German?) GIdeology(ies):  Nationalism  Liberalism GGoal(s):  Austro-Slavism : A constitution & autonomy within the Habsburg Empire. GResults:  Metternich fled  Emperor Ferdinand I initially promises reforms  Revolt crushed by Austrian military (October)

15 Revolution in the German States

16 German States, 1848 German States, 1848 GCauses:  News of Revolution in France triggered upheavals in major German capitals, including Berlin GIdeology(ies):  Liberalism  Nationalism GGoal(s):  Constitutions, liberal reforms (esp. abolition of censorship, & a united Germany GResults:  Frankfurt Assembly (national Parliament) met to draw up a constitution for a united Germany  Disagreements divide parliamentarians at Frankfurt (Grossdeutsch or Kleindeutsch? War w/ Denmark?)  Prussia’s King Frederick William IV refuses to become king of a united Germany (doesn’t want “a crown from the gutter”with “the stink of revolution”.)

17 Revolution in the Italian States, 1848

18 Italian States, 1848 Italian States, 1848 GCauses:  Italian unification movement passed into hands of Giuseppe Mazzini after failed revolutions in 1820s & 1830s GIdeology(ies):  Liberalism  Nationalism GGoal(s):  United Italy with a liberal consititution GResults:  Austria defeated Piedmont in its attempt to take Lombardy and Venetia  French forces help Pope Pius IX regain control of Rome  Rural peoples did not support revolutionaries; liberal constitutions were destroyed (except in Piedmont)


20 Why did the 1848 Revolutions Fail ? GThey failed to attract popular support from the working classes. GThe middle classes led these revolutions, but as they turned radical, the middle class held back. GNationalism divided more than united. GWhere revolutions were successful, the Old Guard was left in place and they turned against the revolutionaries.

21 The Bottom Line GIt looked like the Conservative forces had triumphed. GBUT…  Things had changed forever  Economic/social problems continued to be constant challenges to the ruling order.  Conservatives would have to make concessions in order to stay in power.  Many of the limited Liberal achievements that remained permanent would be solidified by the end of the 19 th c.


23 Historicism GThe “Hegelian Dialectic”  History advances through conflict.  One phase of history creates its opposite [ex: absolutism to democracy]. George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [1744-1803] AntithesisThesis Synthesis

24 The Communist Manifesto, 1848 GKey Ideas  profit is based on exploitation  History is the story of class struggle  Called for a revolution of workers against the capitalist state GWorkers of the World Unite! Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels ProletariatBourgeoisie Communism


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