Presentation on theme: "Springtime of the Peoples An Aid to Understanding the Signifcance of the European Revolutions of 1848."— Presentation transcript:
Springtime of the Peoples An Aid to Understanding the Signifcance of the European Revolutions of 1848
Why violent revolution doesn’t take place in Britain Chartism (1830s & 1840s) Working-class radicals Change from within the political system Six points of the Charter –Universal manhood suffrage –Equal electoral districts –No property qualification for MPs –Payment for MPs –Annual parliaments –Secret ballot Presentation of Charter three times (1839, 1842, 1848) Ultimate failure of the Charter –Internal Divisions –Role of Government to stamp out Chartist Factions
The Course of the 1848 Revolution: January: Palermo (Italy) February: Paris March: Berlin, Munich, Vienna, Venice, Milan, Cracow In Austria Kaiser Franz Joseph 1849: Revolt in Hungary suppressed with Russian help
Revolutions in Europe Austria: –Meternich flees the revolution Ferdinand deposed, choice of his nephew Franz Joseph II (1848-1916) –Hungarian revolt suppressed with Russian help Nicholas I, “the policeman of Europe.” Germany: –Unification of German States Large Germany (Grossdeutsch), or Little Germany (Kleindeutsch) Frankfort Parliament offers imperial crown to Prussian king Italy: Revolts in Naples, Papal States, Tuscany, Venice –Goal: Unification under the House of Savoy –Austrians reassert control in Tuscany & Venetia
Revolution in Berlin (Prussia) 3 March 1848 – Revolution broke out in the Rhineland 15 March 1848 -- Revolutionaries revolted in Berlin, demanding liberal democratic reforms. King of Prussia (Frederick William IV) made concessions to the revolutionaries. Soon afterwards, the other leaders of German states also gave their support for liberal democratic & nationalist reforms. Believing that the kings & princes were committed to a united Germany, bourgeois liberal leaders began to meet in Frankfurt to write a new constitution for a united Germany. (Frankfurt Parliament) –Supported liberal democracy –Little Germany or Large Germany? –Supported a constitutional monarchy (under the leadership of the King of Prussia) & a united Germany without Austria.
Revolution in the Austrian (Hapbsurg) Empire While many revolutionaries advocated liberalism, most were nationalists. Calls for liberal democracy centered in Vienna 12 March 1848, Revolution broke out in Vienna Nationalist Revolutions Czechs, Hungarians, & Italians, in particular, rejected the dominance of a foreign, German-speaking, ruler.
Hungarian (Magyar) & Czech Revolutions Most powerful of the minorities & the most successful of the revolutionaries. Louis (Lajos) Kossuth (1802- 1894) 3 March 1848 – Revolution broke out in Budapest Frightened Metternich, who quickly agreed to allow the Hungarians to establish a liberal democratic parliament. March Laws: Representation, freedom of the press, religious freedom, equal justice before the law, taxation of the nobility. May 1848 – Czechs revolted, demanding political autonomy similar to what the Hungarians had received.
Retreat of the Hapsburg Empire Seeing what was happening throughout Europe, the Austrian Emperor (Ferdinand I) began to grant liberal concessions. –March 1848 – King dismissed Metternich –25 April 1848 – King agreed to a constitutional monarchy –Granted Universal manhood suffrage –Emancipated the serfs 15 May 1848 – Another wave of demonstrations broke out in Vienna May 17 1848 – Emperor fled to Innsbruck (Austria) Beginning in the summer of 1848, Austria reasserted her dominance over the revolutionaries. –June 1848 – Emperor’s army crushed the Czech revolution –October 1848 – Emperor crushed the revolt in Vienna. –September 1848 1848 – Emperor sent troops into Hungary to suppress the revolution. –December 1948 – Emperor abdicated in favor of his nephew (Francis Joseph I) who was determined to suppress these revolutions. –March 1849 – Austrian forces conquered Hungary & imposed military rule. –June 1849 – Austrian joins with Prussia to crush revolutions in the Rhineland, Saxony, & Bavaria.
Revolution in Italy January & February 1848 – Revolts erupted in Naples & Turin March 1848 – Guerra Santa (Holy War) 22 March 1848 – Revolution broke out & Venetian Republic was established. –Came under the leadership of Garibaldi March 1848 – Papal States were given a constitution –February 1849 – Roman Republic proclaimed under the leadership of Mazzini. Goals: Liberalism & National Unification Led by Charles Albert (King of Piedmont-Sardinia) 23 March 1848 – Piedmont-Sardina declared war on Austria New Republics: Venice, Tuscany, & Rome June 1848 – Austrians defeated Piedmont-Sardinia. Austrians re- established control over Lombardy & Venetia, destroying the republics.
The Suppression of the 1848 Revolutions Why do the Revolutions Fail? Problem of Idealism among Revolutionaries Military Power Weak Alliances
Lasting Significance of 1848 While there was a lasting challenge of liberal and radical programsWhile there was a lasting challenge of liberal and radical programs Persistence of old regimePersistence of old regime “Democracy” and 2nd Republic in France under Louis Napoleon, president (1848-1852) then Emperor Napoleon III (1852-1870)“Democracy” and 2nd Republic in France under Louis Napoleon, president (1848-1852) then Emperor Napoleon III (1852-1870) “Representative” government (Landtag) in Prussia“Representative” government (Landtag) in Prussia Emigration of 1848’ers to United StatesEmigration of 1848’ers to United States Eventual conservative cooption of liberal and radical platformsEventual conservative cooption of liberal and radical platforms
Acknowledgements Streeter, Dr. Revolutions of 1848. Online. history.smsu.edu/drstreeter/Hst102_ Presentations/Revolutions%20of%2018 48.ppt. January 1, 2005. This PowerPoint has been entirely reproduced for classroom use. An online version will be linked directly to the original site.