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Revolutions of 1848. Overview of 1848 Attempted revolutions sprang from liberal and nationalist ideals, and largely failed due to conflicting nationalist.

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Presentation on theme: "Revolutions of 1848. Overview of 1848 Attempted revolutions sprang from liberal and nationalist ideals, and largely failed due to conflicting nationalist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolutions of 1848

2 Overview of 1848 Attempted revolutions sprang from liberal and nationalist ideals, and largely failed due to conflicting nationalist interests Alliance between middle-class liberals and working-class leaders sparked revolutions, but then splintered as alliance broke down Only in France did revolution succeed, but it’s results were disappointing for liberal instigators Revolutions of 1848 demonstrated the potential of nationalism to destabilize Europe Success of conservative forces in controlling revolutions demonstrated staying power of conservatism la Barricade de la rue Soufflot, Paris, Février 1848

3 France: Louis Napoleon : Poor harvests, high prices, unemployment 1848: Liberal opponents of Louis Philippe organized “banquets,” that government cancelled Parisian workers rioted; Louis Philippe fled to England Liberals allied with working class: “workshops” in Paris, universal suffrage But nation elected conservative government, closed workshops, Parisians rioted Louis Napoleon elected to restore conservative order 1851: declared himself emperor, disbanded assembly, ruthlessly put down dissent, plebiscite strongly supported him as Napoleon III

4 Europe at 1848: National Groups

5 1848 Austria-Hungary News of liberal uprising in France caused “March Days” across Empire –Liberals, workers, students rioted in Vienna –Hungarians demanded independence –Serfs rioted against oppression Metternich fled to England: end of Age of Metternich Flight of Metternich sparked rebellions across Germanic kingdoms Emperor Ferdinand –granted constitutional autonomy to Hungary and Bohemia; –Freed the serfs, thereby undermining strength of revolt Italian provinces revolted, declaring independence German confederation called a national assembly to create a unified Germany

6 Germany: Failed Unification March Revolution: rebellions for liberal change across German kingdoms Frankfurt Assembly: liberal pan- German national assembly elected to consider unification options Included all German kingdoms, including German areas of Prussia and Austria Declared a new German government; offered position of “kaiser” to Frederick William IV of Prussia; he refused. Regency given to Archduke Johann of Austria Kleindeutsch vs. Grossdeutsch. Weakness of Frankfurt Assembly led to war with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein; called on Prussia for help, and dissolved Frankfurt Assembly 1848

7 Bohemia: Pan Slavism Pan-Slav assembly met, imitating German Frankfurt Assembly; chose to avoid independence, preferring unity under Hapsburgs to chaos Sudeten Germans attracted to Frankfurt Assembly: friction in Bohemia between Slavs and Germans Friction created Czech insurrection, put down by Austrian army general Windischgrätz Prague 1848

8 Austrian Hapsburgs: Magyar Revolt Hungarian Louis Kossuth: liberal and Magyar nationalist Moved official Hungarian capital to Budapest, declared Hungarian national language But Slovaks, Germans, Romanians, Serbs violently resisted Hungary dissolved into “war of all against all” predicted by Metternich Ferdinand abdicated Austrian army general Windischgrätz marched from Bohemia, took Vienna, and allied with Magyars to reassert antebellum Hapsburg control over Hungary Magyar Revolt, 1848

9 Austrian lands German Confederation Piedmont

10 Italy: Failed Unification With chaos in Austria, in 1848 Milan and Venice declared independence Austrian army crushed revolt Pope’s minister assassinated, Pope Pius IX fled, Roman Republic declared in former Papal States Louis Napoleon sent French army and restored Pope; Mazzini and Garibaldi fled Failures showed clash between Catholicism and Liberalism Garibaldi


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