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Chapter 5: Moving Toward Revolution. Section 1: Widening Conflicts Before 1690, colonists had fights and wars with the Indians After 1690, colonists got.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Moving Toward Revolution. Section 1: Widening Conflicts Before 1690, colonists had fights and wars with the Indians After 1690, colonists got."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: Moving Toward Revolution

2 Section 1: Widening Conflicts Before 1690, colonists had fights and wars with the Indians After 1690, colonists got more involved battles that were a result of conflicts in Europe Late 1600’s, France replaces Spain as the rival to Great Britain in world affairs Fought a series of wars that lasted 75 years Eventually spilled over into North America

3 Continue: Widening Conflicts French and British clashed along the western frontier in North America By the early 1700s, France and Britain fought over the entire western frontier: the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys Colonies fought over the political and economic wealth of the colonies; losing them would be disasterous

4 British and French Powers French controlled the land in Europe, the British the seas but in North America is was about even British advantages: 1.5 million colonists versus 75,000 French; British colonist militia versus the French fur trading companies; British were self-supporting where the French had to rely on imports (food and goods)

5 Continue: British and French Powers French advantages: had one colonial government not 13 separate assemblies; French colonies were clustered together rather than being spread out (lead to rapid defense of settlements); largest settlements were well fortified

6 Indian Involvement Each group tried to get Indians to fight for their side French allied with the Algonquins and Hurons British allied with Iroquois (from time to time due to the hatred of the Algonquin) and the Mohawks

7 Clashes in the Ohio Valley See map on page 135 British claims: from the eastern coast, the Hudson Bay area to the Appalachian Mountains French claims: west of British claims to west of the Mississippi River Both claimed the Ohio River valley French were protective of the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains

8 Continue: Clashes in the Ohio Valley 1750s, the French send troops from Canada to occupy the Ohio Valley Put up signs along the river telling travelers to stay out Built forts along the Appalachian Mountains (Both forget they were fighting over Native American lands, not their own!) 1754, Colonel George Washington leads the Virginia militia to drive the French out of the Ohio Valley

9 Continue: Clashes in the Ohio Valley With 150 men, Washington approach Fort Duquesne (outside what is now Pittsburgh) Realizes he can’t win a fight with his small group, he waits until the French venture outside the walls He attacks a French scouting party killing 12 and capturing 20; he then retreats to Fort Necessity (an outpost)

10 Continue: Clashes in the Ohio Valley French find out about the attack and surround Fort Necessity; forcing Washington to surrender Sends him back to Virginia with a message that the French intend to control the land west of the Appalachian Mountains Set up clash of the French and British in North America

11 The Albany Plan After the defeat, 11 colonial delegates met in Albany, NY (NJ and VA don’t send delegates) to ask the Iroquois to be allies and its where Ben Franklin came up with the Albany Plan – a loose confederation of the 13 British colonies to cooperate in the fight against France All colonial assemblies had to approve, as well as the British Parliament Both ultimately rejected the plan

12 Continue: The Albany Plan Without the Albany Plan, the colonists lack unity The were destroyed because of this in the first few battles By 1754, the British and French became engaged in what is know as the French and Indian War (America) or the Seven Years’ War (Europe) The War That Made America – PBS HTTP :// WWW. YOUTUBE. COM / WATCH ? V =DVY4H9P6 N KU HTTP :// WWW. YOUTUBE. COM / WATCH ? V =DVY4H9P6 N KU

13 Section 2: The French and Indian War Both the British and the French wanted to keep the Ohio Valley British sent General Edward Braddock to the colonies with 1400 troops and expected another 1000 colonial militia to join him

14 Early British Defeats General Braddock and his men were ambushed by the French and Indians as they crossed the Monogahela River Partly because of the tight formation of the European style of fighting and the guerilla tactics of the French and Indians, after a 3 hour battle, 70% of his troops were dead or wounded and General Braddock himself was dead

15 Continue Early British Defeats George Washington survived even though 2 horses he was riding were shot out from under him and he had bullet holes in his uniform He led some survivors back to Virginia No one had a strategy (in Britain or the colonies) to defeat the French In 1756, the British finally declared war on the French

16 Britain Builds an Empire In late 1756, William Pitt becomes Britain’s Secretary of State (used his position and genius to turn the war around) Believed that North America is where the British could defeat the French Shifted war efforts there and became determined to expel the French no matter the cost

17 Continue British Builds an Empire Pitt took a personal interest in the army and navy He mapped war strategies and promoted promising, young officers over the old guard Increased military expenditures (money spent) which created a huge national debt Pitt knew that to win in North America, they needed to conquer Canada

18 Continue British Builds an Empire Pitt chooses Lord Jeffery Amherst and James Wolfe to lead the campaign Started by attacking Louisbourg, a French fortress, on Cape Breton Island Although overpowered by the 400 French cannons and thick granite walls, they prevailed and Louisbourg was taken The British then captured: Forts Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Niagara and Fort Duquesne (which they renamed Fort Pitt)

19 Continue British Builds an Empire In 1759, Major General James Wolfe led 250 British ships that carried 8000 troops to try to force the surrender of the fort at Quebec Quebec was the best defended of the French forts and was defended by the Marquis de Montcalm The fort sat on a 300 foot cliff above the river and offered great protections

20 Continue British Builds an Empire Wolfe found out about a small path that led to a field called the Plains of Abraham at the top of the cliff that the French didn’t notice On Sept. 12, 1759, Wolfe and his troops snuck up the path; on the 13 th, Montcalm woke up and looked out to see the British infantry lined up in battle formation to fight Montcalm assembled his troops and sent them out to fight While the British would win the battle, both Wolfe and Montcalm would die from their battle wounds

21 Continue British Builds an Empire On Sept 8, 1760, Jeffery Amherst would accept the French’s surrender at Montreal

22 The Treaty of Paris Though the French surrendered in 1760, there was scattered fighting until 1763 The Treaty of Paris was signed on February 10, 1763 France had to give up a lot of land See the maps on page 140 The French and Indian War made the colonists really work together for the first time

23 Continue Treaty of Paris Many colonists saw the western frontier for the first time Because of the colonists/militia serving with the best trained soldiers, they gained great experience People like George Washington emerged as a colonial leader

24 Section 3: The Burdens of Empire After the war, Britain took more control over its colonies Closed the frontier to explorers; this kept the colonists along the Atlantic coast and was a way to protect Indians from losing land (and colonists from dying and fighting battles with Indians) Then, the British started to impose new taxes, pass new laws and institute new policies

25 Continue The Burdens of Empire All of these caused problems with the colonists

26 Governing an Empire Britain had to pay huge war debts They also had to protect the new lands Britain had to develop a new system of rules that benefitted both the empire and Great Britain The new King, George, became king in 1760 at 22 and had neither a good education or political experience

27 Continue Governing an Empire King George didn’t listen to his advisors, nor did the Parliament understand colonial issues and ideas

28 Frontier Unrest and Money Quarrels Many colonists were eager to travel over the Appalachian Mountains This angered the natives and they fought back To stop the fighting, King George issued the Proclamation to close the Western frontier to the settlers Colonists still traveled and tried to settle out west

29 Continue Frontier Unrest and Money Quarrels The Revenue Act, aka the Sugar Act, meant to raise money by taxing, or putting a duty on, molasses Also taxed silks from China, wine from Europe and certain colonial products like whale fins Parliament lowered the tax by half to make the colonists more open to paying the tax

30 Continue Frontier Unrest and Money Quarrels To help British officials help find lawbreakers, they were given writs of assistance or search warrants to help find them The could board ships, warehouses and even private homes Colonial merchants lost money because of the tax and enforcement of the Act This was the first cry of “no taxation without representation

31 Colonists Share the Cost Parliament also passed the two following taxes: The Stamp Act – required stamps to be placed on all documents: marriage licenses, wills, decks of cards, newspapers, calendars, dice and other items Quartering Act – ordered colonies to provide British troops with food and places to live

32 Furor over the Stamp Act Colonists were stunned by the Acts and taxes Started to speak of the British tyranny or unjust use of power Met as a Congress to write letters to King George and Parliament vowing loyalty to Britain but that only the colonists had the right to tax colonists

33 Continue Furor over the Stamp Act People started to protest for Parliament to repeal or do away with the Stamp Act Merchants refused to import British goods with nonimportation agreements Got people to boycott (refuse to buy) British goods under the threat of being tarred and feathered Started making goods here in the colonies instead

34 Continue Furor over the Stamp Act Started threatening stamp distributors with burning figures of them and tearing down their offices

35 Parliament Yields to Pressure Some in Parliament defended the colonists while others wanted to punish them They were worried about losing business from the boycott They repealed the Stamp Act but passed the Declaratory Act, giving Parliament control over laws that control the colonists in all cases

36 Section 4: The Conflict Deepens William Pitt becomes an influential leader again and sympathized with the colonists complaints Hoped to forge a compromise Fell ill before he could do anything and left politics Charles Townshend takes over leadership, head of the British treasury

37 Britain Increases Control Townshend isn’t like Pitt He jokes about the colonists complaints Since the colonists didn’t like internal taxes, he’d give them external taxes – those put on trade Townshend Acts Set a duty on: paper, lead, glass, paint and tea Quartered troops in New York Challenged the right to colonial self-government

38 Continue Britain Increases Control Colonist fought with “no taxation without representation” Colonies agreed not to import goods, but made their own Samual Adams sent around a circular letter to other assemblies to ask how to oppose the Townshend Acts Townshend died but his successor Lord Hillsborough told the Mass. Assembly to withdraw the letter; they refused

39 Continue Britain Increases Control Colonists were convinced they were being wronged by an unjust government They began to communicate more

40 Tensions Mount Britain moved 4,000 troops from Nova Scotia and Ireland to Boston; this angered the colonists March 5, 1770: men and boys threw snowballs and ice at the troops and in return they fired 5 colonists died; this became known as the Boston Massacre Soldiers were put on trial but were defended by John Adams who believed in the right to a fair trial All were freed but 2 who got a small sentence

41 Continue Tensions Mount Colonial boycott of British goods caused British trade to drop by 1/3 (and caused the growth of some colonial industry) The Townshend Acts are repealed except on tea (to remind the colonists who was boss)

42 The Colonies Begin to Unite British tax collectors are still a minor nuisance Sam Adams reminds people of the repeal of the Stamp Act and the Boston Massacre Gets committees of correspondence up and running throughout Massachusetts; a network of communication

43 The Tea Act May 1773, Parliament passes the Tea Act; allowing the East India Tea Company to see tea directly to the people rather than merchants Still seen as taxation without representation even with the lower costs; seen as driving out colonial merchants When loads of tea came to Boston, the governor refused to send it back When he refused, colonists dressed as Indians and threw the tea into the Harbor: the Boston Tea Party

44 Section 5: Challenge and Resistance The King and Parliament were very upset over the colonists destruction of private property William Pitt came out of retirement to speak on behalf of the colonists but the King and Parliament didn’t want to hear it

45 The Coercive Acts March 1774, Parliament passes 4 new laws to control the colonies Called the Coercive Acts in Britain but the Intolerable Acts in the colonies First, closed the Boston port until the tea was paid for Second, limited town meetings to once per year (also changed the Mass. Government from elected to appointed) Third, those soldiers arrest for the Boston Massacre could have their trials moved to Britain Fourth, a new quartering act covering private buldings

46 Continue The Coercive Acts To get around the Boston harbor closing, the other colonies sent supplies and money by wagon to survive the absent supply ships

47 The First Continental Congress The committees of correspondence called for a Continental Congress  56 delegates from 12 colonies met in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774  Georgia sent no one but agreed to support the Congress  Attendees:  Sam and John Adams  John Jay  Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry and George Washington  Most were lawyers or owned huge estates and attended college  No blacks, Indians or women

48 Continue The First Continental Congress Sam Adams led the Congress to urge people to arm themselves and ready their militia Sent a letter to King George asking for the punishment of Boston to stop and restore peace between colonies and Britain Colonies agreed to end trade with Britain until the Coercive/Intolerable Acts were repealed Promised to meet again on May 10, 1775  The King blew off the letter and sent more troops to the colonies

49 Lexington and Concord Tensions mount in the winter to spring of 1774 to 1775  Parliament refused to repeal the Coercive/Intolerable Acts  Patrick Henry declares: “…but as for me give me liberty or give me death”  Militia groups begin training for conflict  Minutemen – citizen soldiers read to fight at a moment’s notice are organized in many towns and villages  Walk up and down the street in Boston

50 Continue Lexington and Concord General Thomas Gage (British commander in Boston) hears the reports of colonial arming themselves and stockpiling military supplies in Concord Has orders to seize the supplies and arrest Sam Adams and John Hancock  Both are charged with treason, or betrayal of one’s country  Both flee and hide in Lexington

51 Continue Lexington and Concord 700 British troops try to leave Boston under darkness but are spotted by Dr. Joseph Warren who runs to a bell tower to signal Paul Revere and William Dawes by lantern twice Both mount horses and head to Lexington to alert the minutemen  Met up with by Dr. Samuel Prescott in Lexington who rides with them to alert minutemen in Concord  Revere is arrested but Dawes escapes on foot and Prescott rides to Concord alone

52 Continue Lexington and Concord British lose the element of surprise Lamplights in windows and William Diamond’s drumming call the minutemen to Lexington’s village green – 70 colonial farmers wait to confront the British soldiers As the British show up on the morning of April 19 th, no one plans to fight, given the order to fall back by minuteman commander John Parker A shot is fired (probably by a minuteman) and then the British open fire killing 8 and wounding 10

53 Continue Lexington and Concord By the time the British got to Concord, the colonists were ready The colonists met the British on the North Bridge and “fired the shot heard ‘round the world” Used guerilla tactics like hiding behind walls and shooting from windows By the time the British were on their way to Boston, 247 redcoats and 93 colonists were dead Colonial delegates headed back to Philadelphia for the Second Continental Congress

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