3Cause of WarEngland and France were at war.The war was a clash between France and England over territory in North America. They also fought over who would control trade with western Indians
4French and Indians Allies England, Colonists, and Indian Alliesvs.French and Indians Allies
5vs. England English “Redcoat” Regular Army French Regular Army FranceEnglandvs.Flag of England and ScotlandFlag of New FranceEnglish “Redcoat” Regular ArmyAmerican Colonist MilitiaIroquois Confederation of Indian TribesFrench Regular ArmyFrench Canadian ColonistMany Indian Tribes including the Algonquin, Huron, and the Ottawa
6Franc England Large Population (1,485,000) Small Population (75,000) Organized Colonial Militias Few Troops in CanadaColonies are Self-Supporting Relied Heavily upon ImportsNavy Controlled Trade Routes Smaller navy Defends Europe13 Separate Governments Single Colonial GovernmentFew Indian Allies (Iroquois) Strong Alliances with Indians
71754 The First Clash In The Ohio Valley English colonist came to the Ohio Valley and established the Ohio Company to trade with the Indians.The French built Fort Duquesne (In Modern-day Pittsburgh) to drive the colonist out.The French wanted all of the Indian trade to themselves!
8A young Virginian, George Washington, led a number of men to deliver a message to the French demanding that they leave the territory. The demand was rejected by the French.Washington returned to the Ohio Valley with more troops, attacked the French and built his own fort, Fort Necessity.This started the French and Indian War!George Washington in his Virginia Militia Uniform. Notice the British red.
9Fort Necessity was small and could not withstand a French attack so Washington was forced to surrender. Luckily for America this didn’t end Washington's military career.
10Washington Braddock England sends help to the Colonies Edward Braddock was a English General and led an army to take the Ohio Valley. They moved very slowly, building roads and bridges as they headed through the wilderness.Braddock believed that fighting like the Indians was cowardly. He wanted to fight a European war in America. This led to his defeat.Washington went with Braddock. He learned valuable leadership skills and that the British were not unbeatable in battle.
11Braddock’s Defeat George Washington Braddock Defeated because … Braddock moved too slow and was surrounded by the French in the wildernessHis European tactics failed him as the French fought using cover and hit and run attacks. Braddock was killed.George WashingtonBravely rallied survivors and led themback to VirginiaAlthough Washingtononce again lost, heconsidered a hero tothe colonist
12HALFTIME!!!Like a football game, the French and Indian war was a war of two halves.1st HalfFrance used its Indian Allies to win victory after victory.England only had its colonist as many Indians didn’t want to fight for the British. (as they had been mistreated by the British in the past)The British and its colonist didn’t fight well in the forests and against the hit and run tactics the Indians and French used.
13The British Take Quebec Britain gets a new PM and then a new KingWilliam Pitt and King George IIIPitt sent his best generals and troops to fight in AmericaPitt raised money to pay for colonial supplies and troopsGets the Iroquois Confederation of Indian Tribes to become Allies!To win …The British would have to capture French cities in Canada – Quebec and Montreal
14The Treaty of Paris, 1763The war ends when England and France sign a peace treaty in Paris.Britain gains all land from the Atlantic to the Mississippi RiverFrance gives Louisiana (westof the Mississippi) to SpainFrance keeps only Haiti in the Caribbean and a couple of islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
15Effects of WarEngland and the Colonists beat the French and ended their influence in North America.The Treaty of Paris ended the War and gave England almost all of the French land, including the Ohio Valley.This war was very costly to England. The British decided to tax the Colonists to pay for the war!
16Pontiac’s Rebellion British government passed the Proclamation of 1763 The Ottawa Indians lead by a chief named Pontiac attacked British settlements to stop the loss of Native land and culture in the lands west of the AppalachiansThe British stopped all settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains including in the fertile land of the Ohio River Valley to stop the Pontiac Rebellion.American Colonist were angry at this, they wanted to settle that land!