Homework: Tuesday:p.276-281 in the red book You may either do 2 pages of notes OR Give the significance of the following terms: Tang Empire Li Shimin Mahayana Buddhism tributary system Chang’an bubonic plague
Homework: Wednesday:p.285-292 in the red book You may either do 2 pages of notes OR Give the significance of the following terms: Song Empire Liao Empire Jin Empire Song technology Chan Buddhism Hangzhou
Why do we do SCRIPTED again? Imaginary CCOT: Analyze changes and continuities in China from 500 to 1200 CE.
Why do we do SCRIPTED again? Imaginary CCOT: Analyze economic changes and continuities in China from 500 to 1200 CE.
Introduction of Champa rice from Vietnam What part of SCRIPTED is it? –If you want, it can be interactions between China and Vietnam –It could be demography, because it led to a population increase –It could be technology, because it involved new agricultural techniques –It could be economic, because it was traded widely as the most important food crop in China
COLORS! Red stuff is important, put it in your SCRIPTED Blue means discuss it with a partner or partners
RESURGENCE OF EMPIRE IN EAST ASIA CHINA UNDER THE SUI, TANG, AND SONG
ANARCHY IN CHINA Conflict and Change: 220-589 –Three Kingdoms 220-265 –Jin Dynasty 265-420 –Southern and Northern Dynasties 420-589 Period Resembled Western European history after the collapse of the Romans –Disunity and civil war between nomads and Chinese warlords Rival states, dynasties, each controlling a part of the old Han state Confucianism in decline, Buddhism in ascendancy due to its relationship with the nomads Confucian trained bureaucrats still held much influence –Common Chinese subject to taxes, warfare, drafting into army, frequent invasions, bandits
BUDDHISM ARRIVES IN CHINA Buddhism in China –Attraction: moral standards, intellectual sophistication, salvation, appeal to women, poor –Monasteries became large landowners, helped the poor and needy –Posed a challenge to Chinese cultural traditions Buddhism and Daoism –Chinese monks explained Buddhist concepts in Daoist vocabulary –Dharma as dao –Teaching: one son in monastery would benefit whole family for 10 generations Mahayana Buddhism –Buddha as a man became Buddha as a god, saint –Stupa became a pagoda; Buddha became fat or feminine Chan Buddhism –A further evolution of Buddhism –Chan (or Zen in Japanese) was a popular Buddhist sect –Monasteries appeared in all major cities
How do you think the Buddhists were treated in China as they gained power?
BUDDHISM ARRIVES IN CHINA Hostility to Buddhism –Resistance from Daoists and Confucians –Popular criticism focused on celibacy, alien origin, –Governmental criticism: unproductive land, could not tax Persecution –Critics of Buddhism found allies in the imperial court –Tang emperor ordered closure of monasteries in 840s –Buddhism survived because of popular support
How is the split in Buddhism into Chan and Mahayana Buddhism similar to developments in other religions?
SUI DYNASTY After fall of the Han, turmoil lasted for more than 350 years –Three major states contended for rule; further fragmentation –Nomads constantly invaded, created their own states, dynasties The rule of the Sui –Reunification by Yang Jian in 589 –Constructions of palaces and granaries, repairing the Great Wall –Military expeditions in central Asia and Korea –High taxes and compulsory labor services The fall of the Sui –High taxes and forced labor generated hostility among the people –Military reverses in Korea –Sui Yangdi was assassinated in 618, the end of the dynasty
In uniting China after a period of conflict, what other dynasty is the Sui similar to?
Sui Dynasty: The Grand Canal The Grand Canal –Linked the Yangtze and the Huang-Hi –The canal integrated the economies of the south and north
THE TANG DYNASTY Founding of the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 CE) –A rebel leader seized Chang'an, proclaimed a new dynasty, the Tang –Tang Taizong 2 nd Tang emperor, a ruthless but extremely competent ruler China enjoyed an era of unusual stability and prosperity Extensive networks of transportation and communications Adopted the equal-field system Bureaucracy of merit –Recruited government officials through civil service examinations –Career bureaucrats relied on central government, loyal to the dynasty –Restored Confucianism as state ideology, training for bureaucrats
THE TANG DYNASTY Foreign relations –Political theory: China was the Middle Kingdom, or the center of civilization –Tributary system became diplomatic policy Tang decline –Casual and careless leadership led to dynastic crisis –Rebellion of An Lushan in 755, weakened the dynasty –A large scale peasant rebellion led by Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884 –Regional commanders gained power, beyond control of the emperor
THE TANG DYNASTY Foreign relations –Political theory: China was the Middle Kingdom, or the center of civilization –Tributary system became diplomatic policy Tang decline –Casual and careless leadership led to dynastic crisis –Rebellion of An Lushan in 755, weakened the dynasty –A large scale peasant rebellion led by Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884 –Regional commanders gained power, beyond control of the emperor Who does THIS sound like?
How is the fall of the Sui similar to the fall of the Tang?
SONG DYNASTY (960-1279 C.E.) Song weaknesses –Song never had military, diplomatic strength of Sui, Tang –Financial problems Enormous bureaucracy with high salary devoured surplus Forced to pay large tribute to nomads to avoid war –Military problems Civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces Military was largely foot soldiers at war with cavalry nomads
SONG DYNASTY (960-1279 C.E.) –External pressures Semi-nomadic Khitan, nomadic Jurchen attacked in north Constant drain on treasury to pay tribute to nomads –The Song moved to the south, ruled south China until 1279 Nomads invaded, overran northern Song lands Song retreated to the South along Yangtze, moved capital After defeat, constantly forced to pay tribute
What is tribute and why is it usually a bad idea to pay it?
THE SONG ARTISTIC WORLD What do you notice about the art?
DEMOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENTS An agricultural revolution –Twice flowering, fast-ripening rice increased food supplies –New agricultural techniques increased production –Population growth 45 to 115 million inhabitants Between 600 and 1200 C.E. Commercialized agriculture –Some regions depended on other regions for food –Extreme surplus of southern rice allowed cities to flourish
CH’ANG-AN & HANGZHOU Become two largest world cities Urbanization: China most urbanized country in period –Chang'an had about 2 million residents –Hangzhou had about 1 million residents –Many cities boasted population of 100,000 or more
NEO-CONFUCIANISM Taoist, Buddhist Synthesis with Confucianism –Early Confucianism focused on practical issues Politics, Public Morality, Social Relationships –Confucians drew inspiration From Buddhism Spirituality From Taoism Cosmology Xenophobia Contributes, too –Invasions by nomads, Turks and Mongols threatened state –Foreign ideas began to circulate –Too many threats to society, traditions
PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY Developments reinforced patriarchal society –Chinese reaction to foreign ideas Reaction to Buddhist’s gender equality Neo-Confucianism emphasized patriarchy Ancestor worship revived Foot binding gained popularity during the Song –Emphasized dependence of women on men, home –Male sense of beauty at women’s expense Poor, peasant women not subject to footbinding –Women had to work with men to support family –Men could not afford to have women at home, idle
What are some (class appropriate) ways that people go through pain to increase their attractiveness?
Warmup What was your thesis for your East Asia CCOT yesterday? CCOT outline due today
TECHNOLOGY & INDUSTRY Porcelain –Technology diffused to other societies, especially to Abbasid Arabia Metallurgy –Improvement: used coke instead of coal in furnaces to make iron, steel –Iron production increased tenfold between the early 9th and 12th century Gunpowder –Discovered by Daoist alchemists during the Tang –Bamboo "fire lances," a kind of flame thrower, and primitive bombs –Gunpowder chemistry diffused throughout Eurasia
TECHNOLOGY & INDUSTRY Printing –Became common during the Tang –From block-printing to movable type –Books became widespread Naval technology –"South-pointing needle" - the magnetic compass –Double hulled junks with rudder, water-tight compartments
How is movable type the most important invention?
A MARKET ECONOMY Merchants in Charge –Only period in China where merchants socially superior to aristocrats –Merchants attempted to intermarry with aristocrats, become landowners –Merchants attempted to have sons admitted as Confucian bureaucrats Financial instruments –“Flying money " were letters of credit –Paper money backed by state, treasury A cosmopolitan society –Foreign merchants in large cities of China –Mostly Arab (Muslim), Indian, S.E. Asian –Chinese merchants journeyed throughout region Economic surge in China –An economic revolution in China –Made China the wealthiest nation in the world at time –Promoted economic growth in the eastern hemisphere
On the Mid-Autumn Festival of the year Bingchen I drank Happily till dawn and wrote this in my cups while thinking of Ziyou. Bright moon, when was your birth? Wine cup in hand, I ask the deep blue sky; Not knowing what year it is tonight In those celestial palaces on high. I long to fly back on the wind, Yet dread those crystal towers, those courts of jade, Freezing to death among those icy heights! Instead I rise to dance with my pale shadow; Better off, after all, in the world of men. Rounding the red pavilion, Stooping to look through gauze windows, She shines on the sleepless. The moon should know no sadness; Why, then, is she always full when dear ones are parted? For men, the grief of parting, joy of reunion, Just as the moon wanes and waxes, is bright or dim; Always some flaw ?And so it has been since of old. My one wish for you, then, is long life And a share in this loveliness far, far away! -Su Shi, Song Dynasty
Japan Unification Yamato Clan emerged circa 400 CE Unifying religion: Shinto –Animism –Obedience and proper behavior –Ancestor veneration Which belief system does Shinto seem closest to?
From China Buddhism (Zen or Chan) spread by 522 CE Taika Reforms (645 CE) –Made Japan more like China –Under new Shogun (Fujiwara clan) –Led Japanese officials and religious leaders to China –Encouraged Buddhism and Confucianism –Chinese court rituals –Built capital of Nara on Chinese city models
What worked from China? This worked Aristocracy (nobility) Buddhism (Chan Buddhism) Chinese calligraphy University system Song poetry This didn’t stay in Japan Meritocracy Confucianism Severe patriarchy
How was the decline of Confucianism linked to the decline of patriarchy in Japan?
Japanese Feudalism Shogun was most powerful –Actually ruled Japan –Emperor was a figurehead –Daimyo = Lord –Samurai = knight Women had very few rights due to rise of male warrior mentality No law binding serfs to their land (farmers and samurai could change loyalties) Far fewer farmers than Europe –Less land –Fishing was more important in Japan
Japanese Feudalism European Kingdoms What are some differences you see?
Why were the armors of samurai and knights so different?
Knights and Samurai Armor –Knights armor stopped swords and axes –Samurai meant to stop arrows Honor –Knights: chivalry –Samurai: Code of Bushido –Both set rules for combat, bravery –Samurai who dishonored their families were expected to commit seppuku. –Only European chivalry stressed proper treatment of women