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China: Tang & Song Reunification & Renaissance Chapter 12, pg.256-276 220 CE: Han dynasty ends 220-589: era of division 589-618: Sui dynasty 618-907: Tang.

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Presentation on theme: "China: Tang & Song Reunification & Renaissance Chapter 12, pg.256-276 220 CE: Han dynasty ends 220-589: era of division 589-618: Sui dynasty 618-907: Tang."— Presentation transcript:

1 China: Tang & Song Reunification & Renaissance Chapter 12, pg CE: Han dynasty ends : era of division : Sui dynasty : Tang dynasty : Song dynasty : Yuan Mongol dynasty

2 Rebuilding the Imperial Edifice 589 : Wendi Sui dynasty came to power Wins widespread support through Role of nomads Lowering taxes Establishing granaries

3 Sui Excesses & Collapse Yangdi Milder legal code Restoration of Confucian exam system Promotion of scholar-gentry Excess, waste, & wars led to collapse Yangdi assassinated in 618

4 Emergence of the Tang 623 : Li Yuan lays the foundation for the Tang Extends borders of the empire Attempts to assimilate nomads of the Central Asian frontier

5 Rebuilding the Bureaucracy Bureaucracy key to Chinese unity Revived scholar-gentry Bureaucracy staffed by scholar-gentry Offset power of the nobility

6 The Examination System Emphasized Confucian thought Exam system expanded Meritocracy exists, but birth/family connections still most important

7 State & Religion Buddhism spread rapidly during era of division (b/t fall of Han & rise of Sui) Mahayana/Pure Land = mass appeal Chan/Zen = elite appeal Buddhism = cultural, political force Maintained support during early Tang Empress Wu

8 Anti-Buddhist Backlash Confucian revival threatened Buddhism Daoism & Confucianism counter Buddhism’s popularity Persecution under Wuzong Confucianism re-emerges as central ideology Buddhism remains influential minority

9 Tang Decline, Rise of Song : Xuangong’s rule = climax of Tang civilization Yang Guifei 800s : Tang collapse by: Nomadic groups Powerful provincial governors Worsening economic conditions

10 Founding of the Song 960 : Zhao Kuangyin establishes Song dynasty Nomadic Khitans/Liao dynasty remain influential in north Tribute paid to Khitans for peace Sinification

11 Song Politics Song = less powerful than Tang Weakened military Strengthened scholar-gentry →Bureaucracy becomes bureaucratic: large, ineffective government

12 Confucian Revival Neo-Confucianism: Virtue could be cultivated Tradition over new, foreign ideas Particularly stressed lessons of five relationships Patriarchal

13 Decline & Reform Decline: Held hostage by threat of nomadic groups Reform: Legalist & interventionist ideas aimed at correcting dynastic weaknesses

14 Reaction & Disaster Neo-Confucianism prevailed in end Reversed reforms Manchurian nomads (Jurchens/Jin) invaded Song leadership fled south Termed “Southern Song dynasty”

15 Golden Age: Prosperity Population shifted to south Grand Canal

16 Commercial Expansion Territorial expansion & manufacturing → renewal of silk roads Trade aided by: Junks Government regulation Flying money Urbanization intensified economic growth

17 Expansion of Agriculture Expanded agriculture into new lands Innovations increased productivity Redistributed land to peasants

18 Family & Society Confucian social ideas adopted at all levels Hierarchy became more rigid & elaborate Reinforced by law Marriage practices Early postclassical saw improvement for urban-elite women

19 Male Dominance Despite exceptions, women’s conditions overwhelming declined Especially in late postclassical Due to power of Neo-Confucianism Footbinding Compare upper class to lower class?

20 Question : In what ways was footbinding symbolic of women’s position in postclassical China?

21 Invention, Scholarship, & Art Extremely technologically advanced Engineering Gunpowder Compasses Moveable printing Confucian scholarship & being well- rounded valued Tang = poetry, literature Song = landscape painting

22 Global Connections No major changes, instead, a consolidation of Chinese civilization Extended influence over East Asia Most advanced economy in world with major technological innovations Important global impacts

23 Sui Tang Song Southern Song

24 Question : How did Chinese society change & stay the same during the postclassical period? Compare & contrast the Tang & Song dynasties. In what ways did each successive dynasty try to address the weakness of the previous? What were the results of these efforts?

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