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The Beginning of the Tang Dynasty Chapter 12 (1 of 3)

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1 The Beginning of the Tang Dynasty Chapter 12 (1 of 3)

2 Postclassical China (450 C.E. – 1450 C.E.) (During this period, China ruled mostly by 2 dynasties) Tang Dynasty (618 C.E. – 907 C.E.) Song Dynasty (960 C.E.– 1279 C.E.)

3 Background: China Leading Up to Postclassical Period Late 100s C.E. 220 C.E. – 589 C.E. China experienced Era of Division (China politically divided) Han Dynasty collapsed (had ruled China through most of classical period)

4 Era of Division (220 C.E. – 589 C.E.) 1.Regional kingdoms fought for control 2.Nomadic groups attacked and conquered much land 3.Great Wall divided by regional kingdoms and became weak 4.Landowning aristocracy held great political power 5.Non-Chinese nomads ruled most of China, and foreign idea like Buddhism grew 6.Cities shrank, trade decreased, and little new technology

5 So Long Era of Division, Welcome Sui Dynasty Sui rose to power in 580s, ending 400 year Era of Division

6 Wendi First emperor of Sui Dynasty Got support of nomadic military commanders and conquer southern China

7 Yangdi Beat back nomadic invaders to expand China’s borders As scholar-gentry gained power, aristocrats and nomadic military commanders lost power Improved education, restored exam system, and promoted scholar-gentry class (educated elites) Murdered his father, Wendi, to take power

8 Yangdi = Crazy Yangdi became irrational and overspent greatly on public works Forced thousands of peasants to work (built canal system) Launched failed war against Korea Due to overspending and failed war, many in empire revolted

9 Yangdi assassinated in 618, ending the short-lived Sui Dynasty

10 Li Yuan Became emperor of China after the assassination of Yangdi, beginning the Tang Dynasty (618 C.E. -907 C.E.)

11 Tang Dynasty Completed repairs on Great Wall that Sui had started Built frontier armies by recruiting nomadic peoples Tang expanded China by defeating nomadic groups which had long plagued China Defeated nomads by playing one group against another

12 Tang united north China (plains) and south China (Yangtze River) for first time since Han

13 Tang rebuild the Chinese bureaucracy – key to reviving China Tang used scholar- gentry class as leaders, and Confucian ideas used Rise to power of scholar-gentry class meant loss of power of aristocratic families The Return of the Bureaucrats

14 Growing Importance of Examination System Tang set up academies to train future bureaucrats More scholar- gentry than under Han Tang expand exam system (determined job)

15 Ministry of Rites Ministry of Rites established to administer the exam. Exams were open to all, but having family connections helped. Government jobs (bureaucracy) given based on exam performance

16 Chinese Buddhism 2 Major Buddhist Sects in China: 1)Pure Land Buddhism 2)Chan Buddhism (a.k.a. Zen Buddhism) By time the Tang took over, Buddhism was major force in China

17 Buddhism flourishes early in Tang Dynasty under leadership of Empress Wu (690 C.E.- 705 C.E.) By 850 C.E., China had over 50,000 Buddhist monasteries and Buddhism was major force in China

18 Chinese Buddhism Comes Under Attack Tang promoted Confucian teachings and Buddhists lost power Confucians upset with growth of Buddhism and begin to persecute Buddhists Tang leaders convinced Buddhism posed economic threat (monasteries not taxed) Buddhism criticized as a foreign religion (from India) Buddhism criticized as a foreign religion (from India)

19 Wuzong (841-847) Chinese emperor who began persecution of Buddhists Monasteries closed and monks had to return to civilian life Buddhism survived in China, but lost all political influence

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