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Unit 2 Sui, Tang & Song Dynasties AP World History.

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1 Unit 2 Sui, Tang & Song Dynasties AP World History

2 Sui Dynasty (581-618 A.D.) Wendi ( a noble) wins support of nomads & wins control of northern China 589 – Defeats the Chen kingdom (southern China) Wins popularity by lowering taxes and establishes granaries

3 Sui Dynasty (581-618 A.D.) Yangdi (Wendi’s son) strengthens state by military conquest & victories over nomads Reforms legal code & Confucian educational system Undertook expensive construction projects (Great Canal) Scholar gentry brought back into imperial administration Moves capital to Loyang Unsuccessful in attempt to conquer Korea & defeated by Turkic nomads – revolts followed Assassinated in 618

4 Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) Established by Chinese general Taizong Considered one of the greatest dynasties of China Strengthened central government; influenced by scholar-gentry Restored the civil service; civil service exam strengthened Population in south (rice) surpassed north (wheat & millet) Created a more stable economy; paper money & flying money introduced Broke up power of large land owners - urban areas increased in size

5 Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) Expanded control of China to NW & SW (Tibet), Bactria (Afghanistan), Manchuria, & South Vietnam (tea & fast growing rice imported) Chinese junks – Chinese merchants dominated Indian Ocean trade Trade and travel along Silk Road increased; diplomatic relations increased; Strengthened Great Wall; canals and irrigation systems increased agricultural prod. High point of culture; short stories, poetry & painting Empress Wu Zhao – only woman to hold title of emperor

6 Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) Chang’an becomes seat of the empire again (pop. of 2 million) Emphasized Confucian principles, but Buddhism gains acceptance Buddhist monasteries increase wealth & power, but Tang reacts by placing restrictions on gifts - weakens Uighurs (Turkic speaking mercenaries) overthrew govt. in 907 (civil war followed) Decline: corruption, internal rebellions & invasions of northern nomads

7 Song Dynasty (960-1269 A.D.) Moved capital to Hangzhou; overseas trade continued Could not control the Khitan people (northern nomads); Chinese paid tribute – burdened economy Civil service exams emphasized; scholar gentry gains higher status over military Neo-Confucianism emerges - respect for family and authority, but Chinese elite withdraw from society; hostility to foreign thought prevents entry of innovations while stressing tradition (stifles critical thinking)

8 Song Dynasty (960-1269 A.D.) Problems: Uighurs, lost control of Tibet, paid tribute to Jurchen peoples from Manchuria Warfare technology: catapults w/bombs & grenades; flame throwers and rocket launchers Innovations: printing with moveable type, compass, abacus (for taxes) Footbinding catches on with upper class - spreads to lower class Alliance with Mongols backfired (Mongols defeated Jurchen and overthrew Song dynasty)

9 Economy/Society Farming society – aristocrats owned most of the land New technologies: steel, gunpowder, porcelain, mechanical clock, & magnetic compass Guilds (association of merchants) formed Money economy instead of barter Paper money used Long distance trade (Silk Road) w/ Arabs & Romans

10 Economy/Society Women – status improved under the Tang and early Song (especially upper class), but steadily declined during late Song (Confucianism, Neo- Confucianism marriage alliances, foot-binding) Islam & Christianity spread to China Gentry class emerges (well-to-do people from education and civil service

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