Presentation on theme: "China 500 to 1000 AD. China 500-1000 CE Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties Chinese dynasties brought about significant improvements in food production and distribution."— Presentation transcript:
China 500 to 1000 AD
China CE Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties Chinese dynasties brought about significant improvements in food production and distribution.
China CE Which resulted in an increase in population Rise of urbanization Specialization in various technologies.
Background 220 CE: Collapse of Han dynasty During the last two centuries of Han rule, large landowners gained influence in the government. They reduced their own taxes and raised the taxes of the peasants. There was massive discontent and rebellion.
Background Han military generals took power. Aligning themselves with regional landowners as war lords. Han dynasty dissolved in regions ruled by war lords.
The Han dynasty Ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220— more than 400 years. After the dynasty collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms.
The Han dynasty These events began a period of disorder and warfare. Historians call the Period of Disunion.
The Period of Disunion Nomads invaded northern China Formed their own kingdoms Many northern Chinese fled south to region of Yangtze River A number of southern dynasties rose, fell
Civilization Thrived Despite these events, Chinese civilization thrived and developed Nomadic invaders in north adopted aspects of Chinese civilization
Civilization Thrived Northern Chinese immigrants’ culture blended with local cultures in south Arts, philosophy flowered
The Sui Dynasty CE Founded by Yang Jian. Established himself as a powerful regional warlord. Conquered other warlords and reunited China.
The Sui Dynasty Wendi worked to build centralized government Restored order, created new legal code, reformed bureaucracy Created policies to provide adult males with land, ensure availability of grain
Sui Dynasty Innovations Grand Canal: to facilitate trade between northern and southern China. To make abundant food supplies in south available to north
Sui Dynasty Innovations Transportation and communications network Distribution of land: equal field system Government bureaucracy based on merit.
Grand Canal Yangdi forced millions of peasants to work on canal; led to discontent, rebellion 618 AD, Yangdi assassinated, Sui dynasty ended
Grand Canal Greatest accomplishment of Sui dynasty, completed during reign of Yangdi, Wendi’s son 1,000 mile waterway linked northern, southern China Built in six years
The Tang Dynasty Built on Sui Foundations Established capital at Chang’an, Sui capital Government control remained centralized Based on bureaucracy of officials
The Tang Dynasty Tang dynasty ruled 618 to 907; Chinese influence spread China experienced period of brilliance, prosperity, cultural achievement Government, other institutions served as models across East Asia
The Tang Dynasty Civil Service To obtain talented officials, Tang expanded civil service examination system People had to pass written exams to work for government Created flexible law code; model for law codes in Korea, Japan
Foreign Affairs Tang expanded China, Chinese influence Regained western lands in Central Asia, gained influence over Korea
Foreign Affairs Contact with Japan increased; Japanese scholars came to China to study Expansion, increased contact with others grew foreign trade
Tang CE: Expanded territory Tried to establish a Confucian, benevolent government. Stressed Confucian education and civil service.
Tang Improved on developments during Sui dynasty: Transportation and communications network
Tang Distribution of land: equal field system: problems Rise in population Government bureaucracy based on merit. Land given to Buddhist monasteries.
Tang Foreign Relations Tributary relationship with neighboring lands. Neighbor recognized Chinese emperors as overlords. Paid tribute in form of gifts.
Tang Foreign Relations Kowtow: ritual prostration before emperor. Chinese gave gifts and recognition in return.
End of Tang Dynasty Tang dynasty declined in power due to ineffective leadership by later emperors.
End of Tang Dynasty Rebellions occurred and emperors gradually gave over control to regional war lords.
End of Tang Dynasty War lords controlled separate regions until Song dynasty reestablished centralized rule.
End of Tang Dynasty Junior military officer of one of the most powerful war lords in China. Song had a reputation for honesty and effectiveness
Song Taizu ( ) In 960 his troops proclaimed him emperor. Song and his troops subdued the other war lords.
Song Dynasty CE Did not develop into a powerful state. Emperors kept military in a subordinate position. Did not develop into a powerful militaristic state.
Song Dynasty Focused on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts instead of military. Created a large bureaucracy.
End of Song Dynasty Massive bureaucracy created strain on economy. Raised taxes, and angered the peasants.
End of Song Dynasty Lack of strong military allowed nomadic peoples to gain power. Nomadic Mongol tribes invaded, ending dynasty in 1279.
Social aspects of Tang and Song periods Agricultural advancements Population growth Division of labor
Social aspects of Tang and Song periods Specialization of crafts Innovations in techniques and new inventions. Changes in religion.
Agricultural development in Tang and Song Periods Improvements in farming Heavy iron plows Oxen and water buffaloes
Agricultural development in Tang and Song Periods Fertilized fields Irrigation systems Well organized food distribution system
Populations Expansion Increased food supply resulted in rapid rise in population. Growth of cities
Populations Expansion Chang’an believed to be the world’s largest city with estimated population of two million during Tang dynasty. By Song Dynasty, China most urbanized area in the world.
Economy Abundant food supply allowed division of labor. Specialization in technological areas Improved existing technologies and invented new products.
Innovations in China Paper Printing Letters of credit/ cash Gunpowder/ explosives
Innovations in China The magnetic compass Porcelain, fine china. Improvements in production of iron and steel
Decline of Confucianism During Han dynasty, elites and intellectuals embraced Confucian traditions.
Decline of Confucianism Confucian traditions were believed to ensure social order and stability.
Decline of Confucianism Collapse of Han dynasty and disintegration of China into warring states Interest in Confucianism lessened.