2China 500-1000 CE Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties Chinese dynasties brought about significant improvements in food production and distribution.
3China 500-1000 CE Which resulted in an increase in population Rise of urbanizationSpecialization in various technologies.
4Background 220 CE: Collapse of Han dynasty During the last two centuries of Han rule, large landowners gained influence in the government.They reduced their own taxes and raised the taxes of the peasants.There was massive discontent and rebellion.
5Background Han military generals took power. Aligning themselves with regional landowners as war lords.Han dynasty dissolved in regions ruled bywar lords.
6The Han dynasty Ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. After the dynasty collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms.
7The Han dynasty These events began a period of disorder and warfare. Historians call the Period of Disunion.
8The Period of Disunion Nomads invaded northern China Formed their own kingdomsMany northern Chinese fled south to region of Yangtze RiverA number of southern dynasties rose, fell
9Civilization ThrivedDespite these events, Chinese civilization thrived and developedNomadic invaders in north adopted aspects of Chinese civilization
10Civilization ThrivedNorthern Chinese immigrants’ culture blended with local cultures in southArts, philosophy flowered
11The Sui Dynasty 589-618 CE Founded by Yang Jian. Established himself as a powerful regional warlord.Conquered other warlords and reunited China.
12The Sui Dynasty Wendi worked to build centralized government Restored order, created new legal code, reformed bureaucracyCreated policies to provide adult males with land, ensure availability of grain
13Sui Dynasty Innovations Grand Canal: to facilitate trade between northern and southern China.To make abundant food supplies in south available to north
14Sui Dynasty Innovations Transportation and communications networkDistribution of land: equal field systemGovernment bureaucracy based on merit.
15Grand CanalYangdi forced millions of peasants to work on canal; led to discontent, rebellion618 AD, Yangdi assassinated, Sui dynasty ended
16Grand CanalGreatest accomplishment of Sui dynasty, completed during reign of Yangdi, Wendi’s son1,000 mile waterway linked northern, southern ChinaBuilt in six years
17The Tang Dynasty Built on Sui Foundations Established capital at Chang’an, Sui capitalGovernment control remained centralizedBased on bureaucracy of officials
18The Tang DynastyTang dynasty ruled 618 to 907; Chinese influence spreadChina experienced period of brilliance, prosperity, cultural achievementGovernment, other institutions served as models across East Asia
19The Tang Dynasty Civil Service To obtain talented officials, Tang expanded civil service examination systemPeople had to pass written exams to work for governmentCreated flexible law code; model for law codes in Korea, Japan
20Foreign Affairs Tang expanded China, Chinese influence Regained western lands in Central Asia, gained influence over Korea
21Foreign AffairsContact with Japan increased; Japanese scholars came to China to studyExpansion, increased contact with others grew foreign trade
22Tang 627-907 CE: Expanded territory Tried to establish a Confucian, benevolent government. Stressed Confucian education and civil service.
23Tang Improved on developments during Sui dynasty: Transportation and communications network
24Tang Distribution of land: equal field system: problems Rise in populationGovernment bureaucracy based on merit.Land given to Buddhist monasteries.
25Tang Foreign Relations Tributary relationship with neighboring lands.Neighbor recognized Chinese emperors as overlords.Paid tribute in form of gifts.
26Tang Foreign Relations Kowtow: ritual prostration before emperor.Chinese gave gifts and recognition in return.
27End of Tang DynastyTang dynasty declined in power due to ineffective leadership by later emperors.
28End of Tang DynastyRebellions occurred and emperors gradually gave over control to regional war lords.
29End of Tang DynastyWar lords controlled separate regions until Song dynasty reestablished centralized rule.
30End of Tang DynastyJunior military officer of one of the most powerful war lords in China.Song had a reputation for honesty and effectiveness
31Song Taizu (960-976) In 960 his troops proclaimed him emperor. Song and his troops subdued the other war lords.
32Song Dynasty 960-1279 CE Did not develop into a powerful state. Emperors kept military in a subordinate position.Did not develop into a powerful militaristic state.
33Song DynastyFocused on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts instead of military.Created a large bureaucracy.
34End of Song Dynasty Massive bureaucracy created strain on economy. Raised taxes, and angered the peasants.
35End of Song DynastyLack of strong military allowed nomadic peoples to gain power.Nomadic Mongol tribes invaded, ending dynasty in 1279.
36Social aspects of Tang and Song periods Agricultural advancementsPopulation growthDivision of labor
37Social aspects of Tang and Song periods Specialization of craftsInnovations in techniques and new inventions.Changes in religion.
38Agricultural development in Tang and Song Periods Improvements in farmingHeavy iron plowsOxen and water buffaloes
39Agricultural development in Tang and Song Periods Fertilized fieldsIrrigation systemsWell organized food distribution system
40Populations Expansion Increased food supply resulted in rapid rise in population.Growth of cities
41Populations Expansion Chang’an believed to be the world’s largest city with estimated population of two million during Tang dynasty.By Song Dynasty, China most urbanized area in the world.
42Economy Abundant food supply allowed division of labor. Specialization in technological areasImproved existing technologies and invented new products.
43Innovations in China Paper Printing Letters of credit/ cash Gunpowder/ explosives
44Innovations in China The magnetic compass Porcelain, fine china. Improvements in production of iron and steel
45Decline of Confucianism During Han dynasty, elites and intellectuals embraced Confucian traditions.
46Decline of Confucianism Confucian traditions were believed to ensure social order and stability.
47Decline of Confucianism Collapse of Han dynasty anddisintegration of China into warring statesInterest in Confucianism lessened.