2 China 500-1000 CE Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties Chinese dynasties brought about significant improvements in food production and distribution.
3 China 500-1000 CE Which resulted in an increase in population Rise of urbanizationSpecialization in various technologies.
4 Background 220 CE: Collapse of Han dynasty During the last two centuries of Han rule, large landowners gained influence in the government.They reduced their own taxes and raised the taxes of the peasants.There was massive discontent and rebellion.
5 Background Han military generals took power. Aligning themselves with regional landowners as war lords.Han dynasty dissolved in regions ruled bywar lords.
6 The Han dynasty Ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. After the dynasty collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms.
7 The Han dynasty These events began a period of disorder and warfare. Historians call the Period of Disunion.
8 The Period of Disunion Nomads invaded northern China Formed their own kingdomsMany northern Chinese fled south to region of Yangtze RiverA number of southern dynasties rose, fell
9 Civilization ThrivedDespite these events, Chinese civilization thrived and developedNomadic invaders in north adopted aspects of Chinese civilization
10 Civilization ThrivedNorthern Chinese immigrants’ culture blended with local cultures in southArts, philosophy flowered
11 The Sui Dynasty 589-618 CE Founded by Yang Jian. Established himself as a powerful regional warlord.Conquered other warlords and reunited China.
12 The Sui Dynasty Wendi worked to build centralized government Restored order, created new legal code, reformed bureaucracyCreated policies to provide adult males with land, ensure availability of grain
13 Sui Dynasty Innovations Grand Canal: to facilitate trade between northern and southern China.To make abundant food supplies in south available to north
14 Sui Dynasty Innovations Transportation and communications networkDistribution of land: equal field systemGovernment bureaucracy based on merit.
15 Grand CanalYangdi forced millions of peasants to work on canal; led to discontent, rebellion618 AD, Yangdi assassinated, Sui dynasty ended
16 Grand CanalGreatest accomplishment of Sui dynasty, completed during reign of Yangdi, Wendi’s son1,000 mile waterway linked northern, southern ChinaBuilt in six years
17 The Tang Dynasty Built on Sui Foundations Established capital at Chang’an, Sui capitalGovernment control remained centralizedBased on bureaucracy of officials
18 The Tang DynastyTang dynasty ruled 618 to 907; Chinese influence spreadChina experienced period of brilliance, prosperity, cultural achievementGovernment, other institutions served as models across East Asia
19 The Tang Dynasty Civil Service To obtain talented officials, Tang expanded civil service examination systemPeople had to pass written exams to work for governmentCreated flexible law code; model for law codes in Korea, Japan
20 Foreign Affairs Tang expanded China, Chinese influence Regained western lands in Central Asia, gained influence over Korea
21 Foreign AffairsContact with Japan increased; Japanese scholars came to China to studyExpansion, increased contact with others grew foreign trade
22 Tang 627-907 CE: Expanded territory Tried to establish a Confucian, benevolent government. Stressed Confucian education and civil service.
23 Tang Improved on developments during Sui dynasty: Transportation and communications network
24 Tang Distribution of land: equal field system: problems Rise in populationGovernment bureaucracy based on merit.Land given to Buddhist monasteries.
25 Tang Foreign Relations Tributary relationship with neighboring lands.Neighbor recognized Chinese emperors as overlords.Paid tribute in form of gifts.
26 Tang Foreign Relations Kowtow: ritual prostration before emperor.Chinese gave gifts and recognition in return.
27 End of Tang DynastyTang dynasty declined in power due to ineffective leadership by later emperors.
28 End of Tang DynastyRebellions occurred and emperors gradually gave over control to regional war lords.
29 End of Tang DynastyWar lords controlled separate regions until Song dynasty reestablished centralized rule.
30 End of Tang DynastyJunior military officer of one of the most powerful war lords in China.Song had a reputation for honesty and effectiveness
31 Song Taizu (960-976) In 960 his troops proclaimed him emperor. Song and his troops subdued the other war lords.
32 Song Dynasty 960-1279 CE Did not develop into a powerful state. Emperors kept military in a subordinate position.Did not develop into a powerful militaristic state.
33 Song DynastyFocused on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts instead of military.Created a large bureaucracy.
34 End of Song Dynasty Massive bureaucracy created strain on economy. Raised taxes, and angered the peasants.
35 End of Song DynastyLack of strong military allowed nomadic peoples to gain power.Nomadic Mongol tribes invaded, ending dynasty in 1279.
36 Social aspects of Tang and Song periods Agricultural advancementsPopulation growthDivision of labor
37 Social aspects of Tang and Song periods Specialization of craftsInnovations in techniques and new inventions.Changes in religion.
38 Agricultural development in Tang and Song Periods Improvements in farmingHeavy iron plowsOxen and water buffaloes
39 Agricultural development in Tang and Song Periods Fertilized fieldsIrrigation systemsWell organized food distribution system
40 Populations Expansion Increased food supply resulted in rapid rise in population.Growth of cities
41 Populations Expansion Chang’an believed to be the world’s largest city with estimated population of two million during Tang dynasty.By Song Dynasty, China most urbanized area in the world.
42 Economy Abundant food supply allowed division of labor. Specialization in technological areasImproved existing technologies and invented new products.
43 Innovations in China Paper Printing Letters of credit/ cash Gunpowder/ explosives
44 Innovations in China The magnetic compass Porcelain, fine china. Improvements in production of iron and steel
45 Decline of Confucianism During Han dynasty, elites and intellectuals embraced Confucian traditions.
46 Decline of Confucianism Confucian traditions were believed to ensure social order and stability.
47 Decline of Confucianism Collapse of Han dynasty anddisintegration of China into warring statesInterest in Confucianism lessened.