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IMPERIAL CHINA: KEY CHARACTERISTICS. Han dynasty [206 BCE-220 CE] China’s “classical age” Confucianism became the basis of educational system Confucianism.

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Presentation on theme: "IMPERIAL CHINA: KEY CHARACTERISTICS. Han dynasty [206 BCE-220 CE] China’s “classical age” Confucianism became the basis of educational system Confucianism."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMPERIAL CHINA: KEY CHARACTERISTICS

2 Han dynasty [206 BCE-220 CE] China’s “classical age” Confucianism became the basis of educational system Confucianism became the basis of educational system Contemporary with Roman Empire Contemporary with Roman Empire

3 Key Themes in Imperial China Mandate of Heaven – the role of the emperor Mandate of Heaven – the role of the emperor HEAVEN (TI) ANCESTOR GOD OF THE EMPEROR MANDATE OF HEAVEN EMPEROR NATURE Duties: -Son of Heaven -Priest -King -Maintain harmony “The buck stops

4 Key Themes in Imperial China DYNASTIC CYCLE DYNASTIC CYCLE YANG YIN ? “GOOD GOVERNMENT DEPENDS ON GOOD MEN” ? ?M of H Why did dynasties decline?

5 Key Themes in Imperial China Scholar-Gentry Elite Scholar-Gentry Elite Scholars – educated in the Confucian classics Scholars – educated in the Confucian classics Gentry – landholders Gentry – landholders Four Classes Four Classes Scholars Scholars Peasants Peasants Artisans Artisans Merchants Merchants

6 Examination System China as a “meritocracy” China as a “meritocracy” Scholarship was the way to the top! Scholarship was the way to the top! Initiated in 2 nd century BCE and continued until early 1900s. Initiated in 2 nd century BCE and continued until early 1900s. “Cheat shirt” c. 19 th C. Key Themes in Imperial China

7 Chinese Culture-Centrism Chinese Culture-Centrism Sinicization Sinicization Key Themes in Imperial China

8 Tang China: the tributary system RGH #30

9 Connected to central Asia and Rome over “Silk Roads” Sericulture

10 China and Korea Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea recognizes Tang as emperor Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea recognizes Tang as emperor Technically a vassal statue, but highly independent Technically a vassal statue, but highly independent Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive

11 China and Vietnam Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture, technology Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture, technology But ongoing resentment at political domination But ongoing resentment at political domination Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in 10 th century Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in 10 th century

12 Heian Japan ( CE) Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto) Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto) Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands of Fujiwara clan Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands of Fujiwara clan Pattern in Japanese history: weak emperor, power behind the throne Pattern in Japanese history: weak emperor, power behind the throne Helps explain longevity of the institution Helps explain longevity of the institution

13 China and Early Japan Chinese armies never invade Japan Chinese armies never invade Japan Yet Chinese culture pervasive Yet Chinese culture pervasive Imitation of Tang administration Imitation of Tang administration Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence “Nara Japan” ( CE) Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence “Nara Japan” ( CE) Adoption of Confucian, Buddhist teachings Adoption of Confucian, Buddhist teachings Yet retention of Shinto religion Yet retention of Shinto religion

14 Institution of the Shogun Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in 12 th century Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in 12 th century Minamoto leader named shogun, 1185 CE Minamoto leader named shogun, 1185 CE Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to continue in Kyoto Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to continue in Kyoto

15 Medieval Japan Kamakura ( CE) and Muromachi ( CE) periods Kamakura ( CE) and Muromachi ( CE) periods Decentralized power in hands of warlords Decentralized power in hands of warlords Military authority in hands of samurai Military authority in hands of samurai Professional warriors Professional warriors

16 The Spread of Buddhism and Hinduism

17 Tang China: a regional power During the Tang period, Chinese philosophies, classic texts, ideas about government and city planning spread to Japan, Korea, Vietnam During the Tang period, Chinese philosophies, classic texts, ideas about government and city planning spread to Japan, Korea, Vietnam Layout of Nara, Japan, [ ]

18 The Sui and Tang dynasties, C.E.

19 The Song dynasty, C.E.

20 Agricultural Economies of the Tang and Song Dynasties Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops per year Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops per year Technology: iron plows, use of draft animals Technology: iron plows, use of draft animals Soil fertilization, improved irrigation Soil fertilization, improved irrigation Water wheels, canals Water wheels, canals Terrace farming Terrace farming

21 Population Growth Result of increased agricultural production Result of increased agricultural production Effective food distribution system Effective food distribution system Transportation networks built under Tang and Song dynasties

22 Urbanization Chang’an world’s most populous city: 2 million residents Chang’an world’s most populous city: 2 million residents Southern Song capital Hangzhou: over 1 million

23 40º North

24 Technology and Industry Porcelain (“Chinaware”) Porcelain (“Chinaware”) Iron production Iron production Gunpowder invented Gunpowder invented Earlier printing techniques refined Earlier printing techniques refined Moveable type by mid- 11 th century Moveable type by mid- 11 th century Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block technique easier Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block technique easier Naval technology Naval technology Compass Compass

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27 Tea

28 Emergence of a Market Economy Letters of credit developed to deal with copper coin shortages Letters of credit developed to deal with copper coin shortages Promissory notes, checks also used Development of independently produced paper money Development of independently produced paper money Government claims monopoly on money production in 11 th century Government claims monopoly on money production in 11 th century

29 Patriarchal Social Structures Increased emphasis on ancestor worship Increased emphasis on ancestor worship Elaborate grave rituals Elaborate grave rituals Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors Footbinding gains popularity Footbinding gains popularity Increased control by male family members Increased control by male family members

30 Footbinding

31 Footbinding “Three Inch Golden Lillies”

32 Western example?


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