Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 6 Groups and Organisations. 2 Understanding Groups In Sociological terms, a group is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations."— Presentation transcript:
2 Understanding Groups In Sociological terms, a group is any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another.
3 Types of Groups Primary and Secondary Groups Primary group ( 初級團體 ) refers to a small group characterised by intimate, face-to- face association and cooperation. Secondary Group ( 次級團體 ) refers to a formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.
4 Comparison of primary and secondary groups Primary GroupSecondary Group Generally small Relatively long period of interaction Intimate, face-to-face association Some emotional depth in relationships Cooperative, friendly Usually large Short duration, temporary Little social intimacy or mutual understanding Relationships generally superficial More formal and impersonal
5 In-Groups ( 內團體 ) and Out-Groups ( 外團體 ) An in-group can be defined as any group or category to which people feel they belong. It comprises everyone who is regarded as ‘we’ or ‘us’. An out-group is a group or category to which people feel they do not belong.
6 Reference Groups ( 參考團體 ) When speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behaviour.
7 Studying Small Groups Small group is used to refer to a group small enough for all members to interact simultaneously, that is, to talk with one another or at least be acquainted.
8 Size of a Group The simplest of all social groups or relationships is the dyad ( 兩人團體 ), or two-member group. E.g. a wife and a husband, a business partnership or singing duo. The introduction of one additional person to a dyad dramatically transforms the character of the small group. The dyad now becomes a three-member group, or triad ( 三人團體 ).
9 Coalitions ( 聯盟 ) A coalition is a temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal. Coalitions can be broad-based or narrow, and can take on many different objectives. E.g., whites and Latinos, working class and affluent, who have banded together to work for improved sidewalks, better drainage systems, and comprehensive street paving. Out of this type of coalition building, will emerge better interracial understanding.
10 Understanding Organisations Formal organisations and bureaucracies A formal organisation is a special purpose group designed and structured for maximum efficiency. Characteristics of a Bureaucracy A bureaucracy is a component of formal organisation in which rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieve efficiency.
11 Max Weber (1922) saw bureaucracy as a form of organisation quite different from the family-run business. For analytical purposes, he developed an ideal type ( 理想類 型 ) of bureaucracy that would reflect the most characteristic aspects of all human organisations. In actuality, perfect bureaucracies do not exist; no real-world organisation corresponds exactly to Web’s ideal type.
12 1.Division of Labour ( 專業化 ) Specialised experts are employed in each position to perform specific tasks. Such a work arrangement, produces extreme alienation – a condition of estrangement or dissociation from the surrounding society. ‘ Trained incapacity ’– workers become so specialised that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems.
13 2.Hierarchy of Authority ( 權威層級 ) 3.Written Rules and Regulations ( 規則 ) 4.Impersonality ( 非私人性 ) 5.Employment Based on Technical Qualifications ( 論功行賞 )
14 Bureaucratisation as a Process Sociologists have used the term bureaucratisation ( 官僚化 ) to refer to the process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic. (e.g., in a typical citizen’s nightmare, one may have to speak to 10 or 12 individuals in a corporation or government agency to find out which official has jurisdiction over a particular problem.)
15 Oligarchy ( 寡頭政治 ): Rule by a Few German sociologist, Robert Michels originated the idea of the iron law of oligarchy ( 寡頭鐵律 ), which describes how even a democratic organization will develop into a bureaucracy ruled by a few (the oligarchy).
16 Bureaucracy and Organisational Culture According to the classical theory of formal organisations, also known as the scientific management approach, workers are motivated almost entirely by economic rewards. An alternative way– human relations approach, emphasises the role of people, communication, and participation within a bureaucracy.
17 Voluntary Association Voluntary association are organisations established on the basis of common interest, whose members volunteer or even pay to participate. Membership in voluntary associations is not random. The most consistent predictor of participation is socioeconomic status– that is, a person’s income, education, and occupation.
19 Organisational Change Just as individuals and relationships change, so too do organisations, both formal and voluntary. The most obvious changes often involve personnel. e.g., a new president of a nation, an executive fired, etc…
20 Goal multiplication It takes place when an organisation expands its purposes. Generally, this is the result of changing social or economic conditions that threaten the organisation’s survival. (e.g., YMCA as a case.)
21 Goal Succession It occurs when a group or organisation has either realised or been denied its goal. It must then identify an entirely new objective that can justify its existence. [e.g., some welfare institutions, e.g., 喜樂保育院 ]
22 Technology’s Impact on the Workplace Automation ( 自動化 ) By the year 2005, less than 12% of paid labourer of the USA is on the factory floor; by 2020, less than 2% of the global workforce will perform factory work. Telecommuting ( 電傳通勤 ) Work at home rather in office, link their supervisors and colleagues via computer terminals, phone lines and fax machines) Electronic Communication e.g., email, videoconference...