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Jon Witt Alana Hermiston 2 nd Canadian Edition SOC. 1 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Jon Witt Alana Hermiston 2 nd Canadian Edition SOC. 1 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jon Witt Alana Hermiston 2 nd Canadian Edition SOC. 1 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

2 2 Social Structure & Interaction 5

3 Learning Objectives 1. Identify and discuss the various elements of social structure. 2. Learn how the individual and social structure reciprocally shape one another. 3. Distinguish between ascribed and achieved statuses. 4. Develop an understanding of the effects of bureaucratic organization. 5. Learn how modern and traditional societies differ historically and globally. 3 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

4 Elements of Social Structure 4 Social interaction: the ways in which people respond to one another  How we interact with people is shaped by our perception of their position relative to our own  Meanings we ascribe to others’ actions reflect norms and values of the dominant culture –The ability to define social reality reflects a group’s power within a society. LO-1 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

5 Elements of Social Structure Social Structure The way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships. Social structure can be broken into six elements: statuses, social roles, groups, social networks, virtual worlds and social institutions. 5 LO-1 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

6 Elements of Social Structure 6 Status  refers to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society from the lowest to the highest.  A person holds more than one status simultaneously LO-1 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

7 Elements of Social Structure 7 LO-1 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

8 Elements of Social Structure 8 Ascribed status  assigned to a person at birth by society Achieved status  social position that is within our power to change Master status  status that dominates others and determines a person’s general position in society LO-3 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

9 Elements of Social Structure 9 Social role  set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status Role conflict  occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person  or when individuals move into occupations not common among people with their ascribed status LO-2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

10 Elements of Social Structure 10 Role strain  The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations. Role exit  process of disengagement from a role central to one’s self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity LO-2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

11 Elements of Social Structure 11 Group  any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectation who interact with one another on a regular basis. Primary group  small group – intimate  face-to-face association and cooperation Secondary group  formal and impersonal  little social intimacy or mutual understanding LO-2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

12 Elements of Social Structure 12 In-group  any group or category to which people feel they belong Out-group  any group or category to which people feel they do not belong Conflict between in-groups and out- groups can turn violent on personal as well as political levels LO-2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

13 Elements of Social Structure 13 Reference groups  any group individuals use as standard for evaluating themselves and their own behaviour  Two basic purposes:  enforce standards of conduct and belief  serves as standard Coalitions  temporary or permanent alliance geared toward common goal LO-2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

14 Elements of Social Structure 14 Social Network  series of social relationships that link individuals directly to others, and through them indirectly to still more people  networking is valuable when job hunting LO-2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

15 Elements of Social Structure  people can maintain social networks electronically  virtual world participants can create an avatar  collective action made possible through social networking potential of Internet is only just beginning  can help preserve real-world networks interrupted by war and other dislocations 15 LO-2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

16 Shirky’s Four Steps Toward Increased Internet Interaction 16 Source: Based on Shirky LO-2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

17 Elements of Social Structure 17 Social institution  organized pattern of beliefs and behaviour centred on basic social needs Five Major Tasks (functional prerequisites) Reproduce membershipReproduce cultureProduce and distribute goods and servicesPreserve orderProvide and maintain a sense of meaning and purpose LO-2 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

18 Social Institutions 18 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

19 Bureaucracy 19 Bureaucracy  a component of a formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency LO-4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

20 Bureaucracy Max Weber  emphasized the basic similarity of structure and process found in the otherwise dissimilar enterprises of religion, government, education, and business  developed an ideal type of bureaucracy  consisted of five basic characteristics 20 LO-4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

21 Bureaucracy Division of Labour Alienation - loss of control over our creative human capacity to produce, separation from the products we make, and isolation from our fellow workers Trained incapacity - workers become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice potential problems LO-4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

22 Bureaucracy Hierarchy of Authority – each position is under the supervision of a higher authority. 3. Written Rules and Regulations - g oal displacement that is an overzealous conformity to official regulations. LO-4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

23 Bureaucracy Impersonality – Weber sees work as carried out sine ira et studio – “without hatred or passion” 5. Employment Based on Technical Qualifications  Peter principle  every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence (Peter and Hull 1969) LO-4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

24 Bureaucracy 24 Bureaucratization  The process by which a group, organization, or social movement increasingly relies on technical-rational decision making in the pursuit of efficiency. LO-4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

25 Bureaucracy McDonaldization  The process by which the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control shape organization and decision making.  Weber thought the only way to beat bureaucratization was to become more bureaucratic 25 LO-4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

26 Bureaucracy Iron law of oligarchy A principle of organizational life under which even a democratic organization will eventually develop into a bureaucracy ruled by a few individuals. 26 LO-4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

27 Bureaucracy 27 Scientific management approach  emphasizes maximum work efficiency and productivity through scientific planning of the labour process Human relations approach  emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation in a bureaucracy and tends to focus on the informal structure of the organization LO-4 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

28 Social Structure in Global Perspective 28 Gemeinschaft (guh-MINE-shoft)  a close-knit community in which stron personal bonds unite members. Gesellschaft (guh-ZELL-shoft)  a community that is large and impersoanl, with little commitment to the group or consensus on values. LO-5 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

29 Social Structure in Global Perspective 29 Mechanical solidarity - social cohesion based on shared experiences, knowledge, and skills in which things function more or less the way they always have, with minimal change. Organic solidarity – a collective consciousness that rests on mutual interdependence, characteristic of societies with a complex division of labour. LO-5 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

30 Social Structure in Global Perspective 30 Gerhard Lenski  argued that a society’s level of technology is critical to way it is organized  new social forms arise as technology changes Technology and Society LO-5 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

31 Technology and Society 31 Preindustrial Societies Hunting-and-gathering societies  people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to survive Horticultural societies  people plant seeds and crops rather than subsisting on available foods Agrarian societies  primarily engaged in the production of food LO-5 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

32 Technology and Society 32 Industrial society  depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services  rely on new inventions and energy sources  individuals, villages, and regions become interdependent  education emerges as social institution distinct from family due to need for specialized knowledge LO-5 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

33 Technology and Society 33 Postindustrial Societies  economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information  main output is services rather than manufactured goods  large numbers of people become involved in occupations devoted to the teaching, or dissemination of ideas LO-5 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

34 Postmodern Life Postmodern society  technologically sophisticated, pluralistic, interconnected, globalized society Four key characteristics  Stories  Images  Choices  Networks 34 LO-5 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved.

35 Postmodern Life Globally Interconnected World  items we use on a daily basis were probably manufactured by people living on the other side of the world: books, food, clothes  on-line courses – students can take on-line courses offered by colleges and universities world-wide  news stories are delivered world-wide as they happen  we can stay in daily contact with friends and family living world-wide  Social Network: many people list hundreds of friends on their Facebook account 35 © 2013 McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. All rights reserved. LO-5


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