Presentation on theme: "William and Mary Defenders of Protestantism and Liberty? by Caroline Agid."— Presentation transcript:
William and Mary Defenders of Protestantism and Liberty? by Caroline Agid
Biographical Information ●William Henry, Prince of Orange o Only child of William II, Prince of Orange o Born November 4, 1650 at The Hague ●Mary, Princess Royal* o Daughter of James II o Born April 10, 1662 at St. James’s Palace ●Married November 4, 1677 in a private ceremony in Mary’s bedchamber. *- first to hold this title
Assuming the throne(s) ●James II came to the throne in 1685 and Mary was heiress presumptive until a son was born to James. ●William (a Calvinist) took it upon himself to protect the Protestant succession.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
Dutch Invasion of England ●William had received a letter begging him to come to England and save Protestantism. ●Landed with about 15,000 men. ●Hardly any resistance met William, and many had deserted James. ●William got to London and James and his family fled. ●William instantly summons Convention (Parliament).
Coronation ●Throne vacant two months before Parliament offers throne to W&M. ●They were jointly proclaimed king and queen on February 13, 1689 and coronated at Westminster Abbey on April 11, 1689.
Policy Changes ●Whigs vs. Tories ●Toleration Act of 1689 ●Payments to the King and Queen- annual, renewable sums instead of granting income for life. ●Army had to be approved each year. ●King William’s War/War of the English Succession: Ireland. This led to the Treaty of Limerick. ●Bank of England 1694
Bank of England Charter
●WILLIAM and MARY, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, &c. To all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting. ●...shall be, and be called one Body Politick and Corporate, of themselves, in Deed and in Name, by the Name of The Governor and Company of the Bank of England; and them by that Name, one Body Politick and Corporate, in Deed in Name, We do, for Us, our Heirs, and Successors, make, create, erect, establish, and confirm for ever….
Death of Mary ●Mary fell ill with smallpox in December of 1694 and was treated with Venice treacle. ●Died at Kensington Palace on December 28. ●Funeral at Westminster held March 5, 1695 o Attended by both Houses of Parliament o The total cost of the ceremony was 55,000 pounds. ●William was absolutely devastated.
William as a Lone Ruler ●1695- allowed Licensing Act to lapse: newspapers no longer censored ●War of Spanish Succession ●1701-Act of Settlement: removed crown from James II and his Catholic family and stipulated that if William and Anne died without heirs it should pass to Sophia, Electress of Hanover. Also said all future kings and queens must be members of the Church of England- which is still a requirement today. ●War against Louis XIV- September 6, ●Died March 8, 1702.
The Good and The Bad ●Religious Toleration ●Set groundwork for future constitutional monarchies since Parliament was now largely above royal authority. ●Bank of England ●Not a big success in Ireland or Scotland; only caused more division. ●No limit placed on power of parliament
Selfless Protestant Defense? ●William III was always suspicious; he was so against France and Louis XIV because he felt the king wanted to be the supreme ruler of Europe. ●All through his reign his advisors were largely Dutch- as they were the only ones he trusted. ●Couldn’t have been completely one-sided as he continuously pushed for toleration and acceptance after all the wrong he had seen done by his predecessors.
Sources ●Fraser, Rebecca. The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present : A Narrative History. New York: W.W. Norton, ●"The Charter of the Corporation of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England." July 27, Accessed February 22, ●Vallance, Edward. "The Glorious Revolution." BBC News. February 17, Accessed February 22, ●Williamson, David. The National Portrait Gallery History of the Kings and Queens of England. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2003.