Presentation on theme: "Bell Work 10/19 and 10/20/09 How does the “Glorious Revolution of 1689” put the American colonies in the middle of a war between two European countries?"— Presentation transcript:
1Bell Work 10/19 and 10/20/09How does the “Glorious Revolution of 1689” put the American colonies in the middle of a war between two European countries?Contrast the styles of war fought by each side in the French-Indian War. Both styles were shown in the “Patriot”.List some of the imagery that you saw in the “Patriot” that we spoke about in class. There are numerous items.How did William Pitt win the French-Indian War, and at the same time prepare the colonies for war with the British?
2Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The Brit Sit in 1763:New land acquired from French in the Treat of Paris, held over 200,000 Native Americans. Most of them were on the warpath ( Delaware, Seneca, and, Ottawa). They had captured 8 of 11 forts in the western territory, only Niagara, Fort Pitt, and Detroit remained.Detroit was a garrison, that was vital to strategic importance, was under siege by Ottawa Indians under Chief Pontiac. War became known as Pontiac’s Conspiracy”Resistance was put down in 1764, but Brits realize that it would take an additional 10,000 soldiers to protect colonist from Indian hostilities.
3Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The Brit Sit in 1763:The cost to keep soldiers in America, would be great, plus they just finished a War with the French in Too early to reap the bounty from new acquired land.Had to find another source of income to finance “occupying Brit Soldiers”American colonies not affect by War, continued to “illegally” trade with French and West Indies. Making some money!Brits: Why not make the colonists pay for protection.
4Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The Brit Sit in 1763: The British will enact a series of acts on the Colonies that will bring England and the Colonies closer to the War of Independence in the next 10 to 20 years.Remember the lack of British enforcement laws and governing in the previous 125 years has already given the colonist a sense of independence they enjoyed. Britain is now about to take a child’s favorite toy away.
5Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The Proclamation line of 1763: Britain tried to protect the colonist from conflicts with Indians by confining them between the Appalachian Mountains, and the Atlantic Coastline. “Manifest Destiny” would have to wait.Used as a barrier between Indians is Western territory.Prevented expansion, and limited economic opportunities for colonist. i.e. farmers trying to expand their plantations to grow tobacco.The Sugar Act of 1764: Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Grenville, looking to restock the treasury cupboard.
6Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The Sugar Act of 1764: Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Grenville, looking to restock the treasury cupboard. Need some revenue, fast! Take advantage of colonies prosperity in the absence of British rule.Sugar Act of 1764 replaced the Molasses Act of 1733 (part of the Navigation Acts that put a duty (import tax) of sixpence/gallon on all molasses imported from the French, Dutch and Spanish islands in the West Indies.)Molasses made into rum that was used in the Triangular Trade network. Tried to make molasses too expensive to buy. Would have hurt trade between colonies, and Brits enemies.Molasses Act was not enforced.
7Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The Sugar Act of 1764:The Sugar Act lowered the duty to three pence/gallon, and Grenville was going to enforce it and collect the tax.Act also but higher duties on imported coffee and wines.The Stamp Act of 1765:British tax on everyday items that the American colonist used. Not only on imported items, also on domestic items.To show that tax was paid on items, colonists had to buy specially stamped paper. A stamp had to put on daily printed matter (i.e. newspapers, legal papers, ships papers, etc.).
8Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The Stamp Act of 1765:If your papers did not have stamps on them, they would be seized, tried by the Admiralty Court, w/o a jury, and be fined or jailed.Some thought that it is a reasonable price to pay to preserve the empire and supporting the British Navy; others were afraid that there might not be any limit for a Parliament 3000 miles away to put a tax on everything in the colony.Difference between acts like this and the Navigation Acts is that Grenville intended to enforce these acts and clarified the authority of the Admiralty Courts, where smugglers could no longer avoid punishment by appealing to their friends and neighbors.
9Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The Stamp Act of 1765:If your papers did not have stamps on them, they would be seized, tried by the Admiralty Court, w/o a jury, and be fined or jailed.Some thought that it is a reasonable price to pay to preserve the empire and supporting the British Navy; others were afraid that there might not be any limit for a Parliament 3000 miles away to put a tax on everything in the colony.Difference between acts like this and the Navigation Acts is that Grenville intended to enforce these acts and clarified the authority of the Admiralty Courts, where smugglers could no longer avoid punishment by appealing to their friends and neighbors.
10Bell Work 10/21What is the difference between the Navigational Acts enacted prior to 1763 and the Acts enacted after 1763?The Proclamation Line of 1763 was not a tax, but what affect did it have on some colonist financially?Why was the Stamp Act of 1765 so inconvenient for the colonists?
11Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The American Reaction: Slaves of Parliament or Freeborn EnglishmanReacting to British tyranny: created secret society to terrorize the agents of the British who were trying to sell the hated tax stamps, Sons of Liberty.Merchants did not buy imported British goods until Stamp Act was repealed. Affect felt by English merchants, requested Parliament repeal Stamp ActBenjamin Franklin warned Britain , if the did change their ways. Leading to a war.
12Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. The Declaratory Act of 1767: Britain could have resolved issue if they had taken the time to workout difference, War may have been avoided, but Brit Parliament had to be all powerful, refused to negotiate with colonists.Colonists believed they could run the colonies with their own assemblies, while Parliament ran the foreign relations.Britain did not see it that way: Even when the Stamp Act of 1765 was repealed (3/18/1766), they passed a Declaratory Act stating the Parliament still had power to make law for the Americans “in all cases whatsoever”.Did not realize new age, 2M people living in 13 colonies were starting to come together as “Americans”.
13Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. Townshend Acts: Charles Townshend, Chancellor of Exchequer, still want income ($$) from colonies.Ben Franklin told Parliament colonists opposed Stamp Act b/c it was an internal stamp, but would except external tax, Townshend could exploit this through import duties.In reality, colonist opposed all taxes imposed on them by parliament in which they were not represented, “No Taxation w/o representation.”Townshend imposed duties on many imported items, such as lead, glass, paper, paint, and tea.NY Gov to veto every act of the provincial assembly until New York provided for troops station there. All colonies expect to due this under the Billeting Act of 1765
14Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. Townshend Acts: Charles Townshend, Chancellor of Exchequer, still want income ($$) from colonies.Act passed in Parliament in 1767, and they created a fury of resistance in America. Chief Method of resistance was to refuse importing British Goods. Non-Importation agreements were signed by merchants in NY, Philly, and Charlestown. Value of British goods decreased by 1770.Samuel Adams – “Colonial Terrorist”, ablest resistance organizer.Boston Massacre – March 5, 1770 Colonist jeered a small group of Brit Soldiers, Colonist went too far, and Brit Soldiers went to far in response. Killed five colonists, including Crispus Attucks, he was leader of the throng
15Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. Pressure from American Opposition and boycotts , was hurting British trade. New English ministry led by Lord North repealed the Townsend Acts, but kept a tax on tea at the insistence of King George.When the Brits backed down, so did the American resistance. Began paying for importation duties on Tea and Sugar. Threat of interference was gone, American trade bean to prosper.Boston Tea Party – December 16, 1773East India Company- couldn’t pay duties on large shipment of tea in England, so England let them sell directly to American Colonies.
16Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. Boston Tea Party – December 16, 1773East India Company- couldn’t pay duties on large shipment of tea in England, so England let them sell directly to American Colonies. Cheaper than what Americans were smuggling in to colonies.Colonist stood to loose large profit from smuggling tea in to the colonies. Many American refused to buy tea. Monopoly on tea became symbol of tyranny. Adams and the Sons of Liberty, raided East India Company’s Ships full of tea and dumped it in the Boston Harbor – The Boston Tea Party.
17Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. Boston Tea Party forced Britain to use force in response: Coercive Acts (England) or Intolerable (American Colonies) Acts of Had to punish Boston.Closed Boston Harbor and Ports.King had the sole power to appoint colonial governor.Abolished town –hall meetingsOfficials and soldiers who have committed crimes punishable by death to have their trials held in England.
18Chapter 4, Section 1: The British take a collision course. Gave British Troops more authority, and free housing.Enacted the Quebec act, which took away land claims westward from MA, CT, VA, and NY.Taking away land from the colonies, was this a sign of things to come?
19Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence Up until the conflicts w/ the Brit. Gov’t, the colonies remained independent from each other.No Congress for Centralized Gov’t for all 13 colonies, no way to meet to discuss situation in Boston, MA colony.Ben Franklin has tried to persuade colonies to join together. Not working!Since 1763, Grenville and Townshend did more in 10 years to push the colonies together than any colonial spokesman.Colony unity is key to Great Britain losing their colony.
20Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence Boston is calling on all colonies to stop all trade with Britain, 12 colonies (except Georgia) send 56 delegates to Carpenters’ Hall in Philadelphia, PA, on 9/5/1775.This is the meeting of the First Continental Congress – collection of delegates from the colonies that happened to be neighbors on the same continent. Not a nation, yet.Many believed it has the powers of a nation, yet some tasks (National defense, foreign policy.Many different representatives are present at meeting, all with varying points of view.
21Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence Congress greed to form a Non-Importation Association to cease all trade w/ Britain.Delegates dealt with the problem relationship w/ Parliament: Declaration of Rights and Grievances, Written by John Adams.The Brit. Constitution to deny any right of Parliament to tax the colonies.Colonies could only be taxed by their own assemblies.In exchange, would allow Parliament to regulate trade as it had in the Navigation Acts prior to 1763.
22Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence April 1775, MA was hardest hit by Brit acts of Force.Began to mobilize for war by collecting military supplies in Concord MA.Brit Secretary of State for the Colonies, needed to destroy that supply base, before Americans became better fortified.Bostonians learned of the plan and sent Paul Revere and William Dawes to Lexington, and their way to Concord, to warn Americans to take up arms and form ranks to defend Concord.700 Brit Soldiers vs. 70 American minutemen (militia who agreed to be ready in a minute’s warning). Minuteman were reinforced by 1000s of American militiamenDrove the Brits back to Charlestown Harbor.Talk is dead , War has begun.
23Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence 2nd Continental Congress: Delegates from 12 colonies (GA was late), met again in Philly in may No more pleading for better treatment, it was time to demand rights.George Washington – Commander-in-Chief of Continental Army.Need a Navy: Created own Privateers with letters of Marque. American Privateers after Brit Ships.Battle of Bunker Hill – Bloodiest conflict on Brit. North America.16,000 militiamen from NH, CT, MA, RI in Boston.Brit Colonel William Prescott sent to fortify Bunker Hill.
24Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence Battle of Bunker Hill – Bloodiest conflict on Brit. North America.16,000 militiamen from NH, CT, MA, RI in Boston.Brit Colonel William Prescott sent to fortify Bunker Hill.Fortified Breed’s Hill instead. This is where the battle for Bunker Hill was fought.After three attempts, Prescott succeeds in taking the battle of Bunker Hill.Moral Victory for Americans. Battle showed that the raw troops of America could face and stand toe to toe with British Regular Army.
25Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence After battle, the Continental Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George.Asked the King to stop efforts of Parliament to enslave them and that they wanted peace and harmony with England.King refused, Congress declared ware on 7/6/1776.King hired 30,000 mercenary troops from German Princes of Brunswick, Hesse, and Anhalt.Royal Governors lost control of their assemblies and took refuge on battleships.Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga.
26Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold lead American Troops to invade Canada. Monty was killed, and Arnold was wounded near Quebec, Siege of Canada ended.All of this occurred before the end of 1775.“Common Sense” written by Thomas PaineThe most influential pamphlet ever to be published appeared on 1/15/1776.Common sense to stop recognizing “royal brute” King George III.America should break all connection with Britain.
27Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence “Common Sense” written by Thomas PaineNation was destined to show the world how it could break free from royal tyranny, and rule themselves and be free.Paine was the man most responsible for the declaration of our independence.Siege of Boston over (3/1776) when Washington took Dorchester Heights. Position on the hill forced the British fleet to leave Boston Harbor and retreat to Halifax Nova Scotia. Boston Harbor is free from Brit fleet for 1st time since the Intolerable Acts of 1774
28Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence Continental Army needs the assistance of Britain’s enemies in Europe, France and Spain.(3/1776) Send Silas Deane of CT to ask for help from France, and abolished 100 years accumulation of Navigation Acts, and opened up all American Ports to all nations, except Britain.French were already conspiring w/ the Spanish to tear apart the British Empire by Sending supplies to America.
29Bell Work 10/29 and 11/2What were three types of reaction American colonists used in response to the British Parliaments’ treatment of the colonist?What did all American Colonists oppose?What was the British reaction to the Boston Tea Party?What did the Continental Congress agree to do to cease all trade with England?What did the Olive Branch Petition ask of King George III?What did Thomas Paine ask the Americans to do for independence?
30Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence Declaration of IndependenceMay 1776, Americans had:Set up their own CongressSet up their own ArmyBegan to organize their own navyDeclared commercial independence by abolishing all the British laws of navigation.July 2, 1776, Continental Congress adopted a short resolution “that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be , free and independent states,” and that all political connection with Great Britain was now broken.America had announced their independence, but had not declared, or at least had not given their reasons.
31Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence Declaration of Independence – written by Thomas Jefferson – Stating only what people believedOpening part of the Declaration, “Preamble”: gov’ts derive their power from the consent of the governed.When a gov’t threatens life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, it is the right of the people to abolish the gov’t and institute another gov’t that would effect their safety and happiness.Pointed out abuses of King George III: cutting off trade, imposing taxes w/o representation, and taking away the right to trial by jury.King would not respect colonist rights, they had no choice but to set-up a new gov’t
32Chapter 4, Section 2: Declaring Independence Declaration of IndependenceJuly 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence was approved by the Second Continental Congress, when signed by John Hancock, president of the Congress.Jefferson had written an eloquent birth certificate of the United States. Document would inspire people all over the world.
33Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown New type of battle: Skirmish (guerrilla Warfare)War in Europe (1700s) – Age of Limited WarfareArmies fought according to certain rules, in open fields, and in good weather. Armies set-up in neat array, so each army new what they were facing. Each part of an army was expected to perform only certain maneuvers. Breaking the rules was frowned upon.Battles were fought by professionals: Officers (Aristocracy); Privates were human dregs, and mercenaries (Swiss and Hessians) were the best-trained and most disciplined soldiers on the battlefield that money could buy.Weapons were crude and unreliable.
34Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown American Militia: Not an army, but a home guard w/ men who had weapons. Chose when to fight and when to run. Can’t fight a war w/ just a militia.Washington had to create a Continental Army made up of men who were enlisted and paid by the Continental Congress. Bound them to duty.After evacuation of Boston by the Brits: the Revolutionary War can be broken up into two stages:First Stage: to Northern CampaignWashington was tasked to organize and keep American troops on the battlefield, and prevent it from being destroyed by the BritishSecond Stage: to 1781 – Southern CampaignWashington could not be easily defeated in the North
35Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown Second Stage: to 1781 – Southern CampaignWashington could not be easily defeated in the North. So fighting moved to the South where the British hoped Loyalist support would help them.First Stage: Washington had to create the Army and fight the British at the same time.July and August 1776 – British poured troops into New York City and Long Island until they had a force of 32,000 soldiers. Washington only had a force of 23,000, mostly militia. 8/27/1776 Brits attack Washington and inflicted heavy casualties. Washington had to retreat, with the help of Col. John Glover and his Marblehead fishermen, rugged fishermen and sailors from Marblehead, MA who could “handle oars as well as muskets.” were ferried across the East River to Manhattan.
36Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown First Stage:Significance is that if Washington and his army had been trapped in New York the war was over before it had begun.November 1776 – Low-point of war for WashingtonMilitia returned to their homes during the winter for harvest time.One year conscripts (regular Army) time was up on 12/31/1776, w/o much change in the situation, chances of regular Army re-enlisting were slim.12/25/1776 – Washington was ferried across the Delaware River by Glover’s men, into Trenton, NJ They surprised the sleeping Hessian mercenaries and took 900 prisoners.Washingtons’ victory and persuasive power convinced many regulars to stay.
37Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown First Stage:Washington fools General Charles Cornwallis at Princeton , by destroying Cornwallis’ rear guard.Battle of Princeton forced Cornwallis to retreat from New Jersey and return to NY. Then Winter Quarters.In Washington’s 10-day campaign, he had saved the cause for independence. American morale shot up, and enlistment of men increased. The war will go on.
38Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown First Stage:Summer of 1777 – Brits plan to invade NY , unite at Albany and control the Hudson, cutting New England from other colonies. Three prong attack from North, West, and South.Brits did not learn from French-Indian war. The countryside fights back, in the form of the Militia.One never made it to Albany.One never got the instruction to sail up the Hudson to Albany and left for the Chesapeake Bay.One walked into militia trap and surrendered in Saratoga, NY on October 17, 1777.
39Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown First Stage:The American Victory at Saratoga was the turning point in history.French sign treaty of alliance on February 7, 1778, Victory for American Independence was assured, with the help of money, troops, supplies, and a navy. (Foreign Allies: Von Steuben and “Baron” de Kalb from Germany, Marquis de Lafayette from France, Casmir Pulaski and Thaddeus Kosciusko (built West Point) from Poland.British would now move the battle to the South, where they expected to get more help from the Loyalists.Before the Brits could escape to the South, Washington attacked British forces at Monmouth, NJ on June 28, Last big battle of the war north of Virginia.
40Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown Between stages, (Summer of 1778)the war slowed down, only significant fighting occurred in Southern Illinois in the west, when George Rogers Clark and his Kentucky frontiersman seized British post in Kaskaskia and Cahokia.Second Stage begins in December 1778, when the British take Savannah, GA, May 1780, Charleston, SC was captured, General Gates is captured in Camden, SC on August The southern Campaign is lost!October 7, 1780 – King’s Mountain, SC, 1200 Loyalists (colonists who opposed the war and wanted to stay with Great Britain) were killed or captured . Bloodiest battle since Bunker Hill.Guerrilla Bands under Sumter, Pickens, and the “Swamp Fox” Marion struck fear in the British at every turn.Under the command of Nathanael Green and Daniel Morgan, along with militia, push the British army, under Lord Cornwallis, up the Atlantic coast to the fortified position in Yorktown, VA.
41Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown Surrounded on the Chesapeake peninsula by Washington and French General Rochambeau, and cut off from the British Fleet by French Naval fleet under Admiral de Grasse, General Cornwallis surrendered his entire army of 7750 on October 19, 18, 1781.Treaty of Paris – March 1782, a new government came to power. W/ the sole condition that England would not veto the independence of America, peace negotiations began in Paris.American delegates Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay.September 3, 1783, Treaty of Paris was signed between Britain, France, Spain, and the United States:
42Chapter 4, Section 3: How British Power was Overthrown Provisions of the Treat of Parris:England acknowledged the independence of the U.S. the Approximate modern northern border, West to the MS River, and south to Florida.Why the British Lost.Separated from HQ by the Ocean.Lines of Communications were too long.Brit Gov’t were badly informed.Overestimated the American Colonists.Set an impossible task.Army could not occupy a whole continent.Did not know the land.Colonies did not have a set capital to surrender.Washington's ability to field a standing army throughout the warFrance’s assistance to the colonies.The WAR is over, now the hard part begins.