Presentation on theme: "Birth of a Democratic Nation"— Presentation transcript:
1Birth of a Democratic Nation Ch. 2 Section 2Birth of a Democratic Nation
2Colonial Resistance and Rebellion By 1760, King George III took the English throne.The British government began to tighten its grip on the American colonies. King George III adopted a policy of mercantilism, theory that a country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys.Horde all the wealth and resources for your countryBritain wanted to buy American raw materials at low prices and sell colonists British products at high prices.
3Colonial Resistance and Rebellion 1763 Britain won land from France in the French and Indian War. ( )By this time the British needed to cover costs of the war (war debts and costs of ruling new lands) through the colonists; also Proclamation of 1763 prevented settlement of land west of the Appalachian Mts.Colonists resented the taxes for the sole reason that they had no representatives in Parliament“No Taxation Without Representation”
4Colonial Resistance and Rebellion To protest, many colonists resorted to boycotting, or refusing to buy British goods.As a result, Parliament agreed to repeal, or cancel such taxes.Parliament would then place a new tax on the colonists and try to force its will on the people.
5Colonial Resistance and Rebellion Stamp Act (1765) – required all colonists to attach expensive tax stamps to all newspapers and legal documentsDeclaratory Act (1766) – stated that Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for the colonies in ALL cases.
6Colonial Resistance and Rebellion Townshend Acts (1767) – levied new taxes on goods imported to the colonies such as tea, paper, and basic items that colonists needed.Tea Act (1773) – allowed the British East India Company to bypass taxes thus making tea cheaper than the colonial merchants who competed with the company; advantage over colonial merchants
7Colonial Resistance and Rebellion In response to this injustice, colonists blocked all the company’s ships from colonial ports except for in Boston, MADecember Colonists dressed up as Native Americans and dumped the British tea into Boston Harbor in protest (Boston Tea Party)
8Colonial Resistance and Rebellion Parliament quickly responded by passing the Coercive Acts which restricted the colonists rights such as trial by jury and allowed British soldiers to search people’s homes and even move inColonists called these the Intolerable Acts
9Colonial Resistance and Rebellion To counter the Intolerable Acts, 12 colonies except Georgia, sent delegates to a meeting in Philadelphia known as the First Continental Congress (Sept. 1774)This first meeting was meant to discuss concerns and send a letter to King George III to have their rights restored. Another meeting would be held if their demands were not met within a year.He did not take this well and sent troops to America.
10Colonial Resistance and Rebellion In April 1775, the Revolutionary War began with two battles in Massachusetts, Lexington and ConcordColonists began to question their loyalty to England, and began talking about independenceAt the Second Continental Congress (May 1775):- some people wanted independence (patriots)- some people still felt loyal to England (loyalists)
11Colonial Resistance and Rebellion In January 1776, a colonist named Thomas Paine inspired other colonists by publishing a pamphlet called Common Sense.People agreed with Paine that it made “common sense” to stop following the “royal brute” King George III.This was a struggle for freedom from a tyrant.More than half of the colonists at the Second Continental Congress agreed to break away from England
12Colonial Resistance and Rebellion The Continental Congress acting as a government for the people chose a committee to draft a document to officially announce the independence of the U.S.Thomas Jefferson would be the architect who did most of the writing
13Colonial Resistance and Rebellion The draft of the Declaration of Independence explained why the United States of America should be a free nationIt also argued that the British government did not look after the interests of the colonists.Listed a long list of abuses by King George III and also labeled him a tyrantThe purpose of government is to protect the rights of the people and if it disregards those rights, the people are entitled to change or overthrow it. (whose idea was this?)
14Colonial Resistance and Rebellion These ideas were influenced by John Locke.He saw government as a contract between people and the rulersPeople agree to give up some freedoms and abide by government decisionsIn return, government promises to protect them and their liberty. Any misuse of that power and the people should rebel.
15Colonial Resistance and Rebellion The Second Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.The American colonies were independent states, but true recognition from Great Britain would not be achieved until the war ended.