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HIS 31 CHAPTER 13 POWER POINT Europe’s Social and Political Order and Absolute Monarchies (1600-1715)

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Presentation on theme: "HIS 31 CHAPTER 13 POWER POINT Europe’s Social and Political Order and Absolute Monarchies (1600-1715)"— Presentation transcript:

1 HIS 31 CHAPTER 13 POWER POINT Europe’s Social and Political Order and Absolute Monarchies ( )

2 KEY TERMS Great Chain of Being – 17th Century Western European belief that God, angels, humans, animals, and plants existed in an ordered, permanent arrangement Royal Absolutism – 17th Century kings commanded more loyalty, control, and resources than their predecessors due to their belief in divine right Fronde ( ) – French subjects revolt against the monarchy because they objected to high taxes and increasing royal power Classical Style – French literature that described the elegance, sense of order, and formalism of royalty Estates – representatives of the three social classes under the Old Regime of France Sumptuary Laws – European governments issued these laws to regulate what kinds of clothing were appropriate for members of each social class Puritans – Protestants in England who wanted to “purify” the Church of England; they wanted to remove all traces of Catholicism Roundheads – Parliamentary forces during the English Civil War ( ) led by Oliver Cromwell; got their name due to their short haircuts Levellers – radical Protestants who wanted social justice in England due to the crime that resulted from bad harvests Constitutionalism – In 1689, Parliament passed the Bill of Rights which stated that kings were subject to the laws of the land; this created a constitutional monarchy Glorious Revolution (1688) – William and Mary become monarchs in England without any bloodshed and they agree to adhere to the English Bill of Rights

3 ANALYZING QUESTION 1 Analyze the ways monarchs tried to increase their power.
Henry IV (France) – Edict of Nantes (religious toleration), appealed to the traditional nobility by creating an image of a cultured warrior-king, sold government offices to rich lawyers, merchants, and landowners, increased law-enforcement, improved transportation, lowered tariffs, protected industry Louis XIV (France) – used symbol of the “Sun King” to enhance his nobility (image perpetuated by his advisor, Bishop Bossuet), “Lʼétat, cʼest moi” (I am the state), appointed members of modest noble backgrounds to important offices of government, initiated public works, building the palace at Versailles, created a complex system of etiquette and favoritism that he forced the nobility to be a part of daily, outlawed Protestantism, fought wars of aggression to acquire territory, glory, and wealth Ivan the Terrible (Russia) – destroyed Mongols in southern Russia, conquered Siberia, created a secret police force to bypass powerful nobles, used torture and terror to silence opponents, created the Law Code of 1649 which made serfs into property for landowning nobles Peter the Great (Russia) – adopted Western technology, politics, and customs to boost his political and military power, expanded Russian territory by fighting Sweden to gain a piece of the Baltic Coast (warm-water port of St. Petersburg)

4 ANALYZING QUESTION 2 What groups opposed the increase in monarchial power and what political theories were developed to support their positions? Constitutionalism – in England, instead of the government residing in an absolute monarch, it eventually rested in written law Quakers (English Protestants) forbade its members to take off their hats to men in authority The prestige of “old wealth” enjoyed by the nobility declined as a result of the “new money” earned by merchants and entrepreneurs The medieval military that protect the nobles declined along with feudalism; mercenaries now rose to power Thomas Hobbes – believed in the social contract; humans recognized their inability to live peacefully, so they willingly gave up their sovereignty to a ruler who would rule them absolutely, yet keep society orderly John Locke – believed power originally rested with the people; he argued that if a government or king failed to protect citizens’ rights, it was the people’s responsibility to overthrow them and create a new government

5 ANALYZING QUESTION 3 In what ways might the term “absolutism” also apply to Mughal emperors?
Mughal Empire – Islamic Turkish empire that conquered the Indian subcontinent Babur, Akbar, Jahangir – absolute rulers who wielded power arbitrarily Jahangir – ordered a bloody campaign against the rebellious Afghans to bring his empire under firmer control Aurangzeb – emperor who demanded that all Muslims strictly follow all principles of Islam, led military campaigns, persecuted Hindus and Sikhs

6 ANALYZING QUESTION 4 How do you explain why in some areas monarchs won the battle for sovereignty, whereas in others they lost? Charles I – lost the battle for sovereignty; Cromwell’s forces crushed the king’s royal supporters (Cavaliers), Parliament purposefully tried Charles I as a king, he was accused of abusing his authority under divine right by exercising tyrannical power, he was found guilty and executed in January 1649 William and Mary – won the battle for sovereignty; Parliament and monarchs agreed to joint rule, monarchs preserved freedom of speech, election, and the rule of law by adhering to the Bill of Rights, Parliament demonstrated that the power to rule rested with the people rather than absolutely with a king or queen

7 ANALYZING QUESTION 5 Describe the struggles peasants throughout Europe faced during the seventeenth century. How did their conditions differ in western and eastern Europe? Western European peasants suffered from a lack of food and adequate clothing, they had to pay a huge amount of taxes, they were forced to give what little food and money they had over to nobles Eastern European peasants were serfs who were bound t the land and owed services to their lords Problems under Peter the Great - modernization reforms made the peasantry worse; 97 percent of the Russian population were serfs and they became tied down in a system of serfdom which was essentially slavery, their tax contributions increased by 500 percent, their feudal obligations and military service increased

8 THINKING ABOUT DOCUMENTS (PAGE 409) What, according to Bossuet, are the nature and properties of royal authority? How does he justify the various qualities of royal authority? How absolute is the power of kings? Question 1 – royal authority is sacred, paternal, absolute, and ruled by reason’ kings must provide for the safety and welfare of their people; they are the father of their people Question 2 – princes (kings/monarchs) are God’s ministers and lieutenants on Earth and he grants them the power to rule; the title of Christ is given to kings Question 3 – kings are subject to the laws because they must be just and they must protect justice BUT they are not subject to the penalties of law

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