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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 3 Chapter 21 in Text MR. VERDONE GLOBAL STUDIES II KECSS."— Presentation transcript:


2  • European monarchs of the 1600s claimed they had absolute power to rule because God gave them their power to govern  The theory that justifies a monarch’s authority is called DIVINE RIGHT  •From the 15th to18th Centuries, absolute monarchs of Europe and Asia sought to CENTRALIZE their political power.  •CENTRALIZATION = Absolute monarchs determined government policies without the consent of their people

3  Absolute Mughal ruler of India who modernized and expanded his empire by using ideas from other cultures  Strengthened India by promoting religious tolerance

4  Niccolò Machiavelli (The Prince)  Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan)  Both advocated that a ruler should employ absolute power to maintain order in the areas under their rule

5  Louis XIV is credited with saying “Lʼétat, cʼest moi” (I am the state).  He promoted culture by supporting the arts  He drained France’s treasury by building the lavish Palace at Versailles and involving France in costly wars  France did gain territory in the Netherlands (Dutch) in 1667 in an effort to expand its boundaries

6  Phillip II gained much wealth from Spain’s overseas empire in the Americas  He believed he was the defender of Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the Protestant Reformation  He waged war against the Protestants in Europe and lost

7  He believed in divine right  He also recognized the value of good relations with Parliament (England’s lawmaking body)  1529 – asked Parliament to pass a series of laws to limit the Pope’s power in England

8  Charles I inherited the throne and imprisoned his foes without a trial.  He dissolved Parliament because he did not want to consult with them when he increased taxes.  Charles I stormed the English Parliament to arrest its radical leaders and the English Civil War (1642–1651) ensued.  Supporters of the king (Cavaliers) faced off against supporters of Parliament (Roundheads).  Parliament won and Charles I was executed.

9  Also known as Suleiman the Lawgiver or Suleiman I (Suleyman is an alternate spelling)  Muslim ruler who held complete religious and political power  Great military leader who created a strict law code  Fought against corruption, bribes, and did not allow imprisonment without trial  Conquered parts of the Mediterranean and North Africa

10  • Peter the Great WESTERNIZED Russia  He tried to modernize (westernize)Russian society by incorporating western technology into the military and industry  He demanded that boyars (Russian nobles) shave their beards and replace their old fashioned robes with Western-style clothes.  Expanded Russian territory by fighting Sweden to gain a piece of the Baltic Coast  Peter wanted a warm-water port for better trading opportunities  Peter the Great established the city of St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea

11  The documents and events in the following slides led to a constitutional monarchy in England  Constitutional monarchy – a monarch’s rule is limited by Parliament (elected government officials) and documents that guarantee civil liberties  Example – Prime Minister is elected by the majority party in Parliament today

12  List of feudal rights that limited the power of King John during the Middle Ages  Document was drafted by English nobles and approved by John  Rights = no taxation without representation, a jury trial, and protection by the law  Guaranteed what are now considered basic rights in the U.S. and England

13  Prohibited King Charles I from raising taxes without Parliament’s consent  Also prevented imprisonment without legal justification

14  Habeas corpus is the principle that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime  Passed during the rule of King Charles II

15  The bloodless overthrow of James II who offended his subjects by displaying his Catholicism  King James II fled for France when William of Orange (Netherlands) led his army to London  James’s daughter, Mary, married William  Parliament offered the throne to King William and Queen Mary  Parliament agreed to joint rule with the monarch  Established limited monarchy and a constitutional monarchy

16  John Locke was one of the most important political thinkers of the time  Locke opposed absolute monarchy  He believed in natural rights of life, liberty, and property  Purpose of government is to protect these three rights  Citizens have the right to overthrow the government if they fail to protect these rights  Locke’s ideas were later used by leaders of the American Revolution as the basis for their struggle

17  Before they could be crowned, Parliament had William and Mary agree to accept this bill  Bill of Rights ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy  Monarchs could NOT :  prohibit freedom of speech from Parliament  suspend Parliament’s laws  pass taxes without Parliament’s consent  Punish citizens for grieving against the king or queen

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