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Chapter 19.4. FALLOUT SHELTER Definition of terrorism The use of violence, especially against civilians, by groups of extremists (sometimes sponsored.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19.4. FALLOUT SHELTER Definition of terrorism The use of violence, especially against civilians, by groups of extremists (sometimes sponsored."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19.4


3 Definition of terrorism The use of violence, especially against civilians, by groups of extremists (sometimes sponsored by governments that protect and fund them) to achieve political goals is terrorism

4 Types of Terrorism Domestic terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government without foreign involvement Oklahoma City bombing is a primary example (April 19, 1995) International terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States Sept. 11, 2001 is an example of International Terrorism

5 Methods of Terrorism Firearms Explosive and Incendiary Devices Chemical Agents Biological Agents Nuclear Weapon

6 Chemical agents Destroy livestock or ravage crops Some agents are odorless and tasteless They can have an immediate or a delayed effect

7 Example of Chemical Terrorism Sarin nerve agent attacked the Tokyo subway system in March 20, 1995 12 people were killed and 53 were seriously injured

8 Tokyo Subway, March 20, 1995

9 Biological Terrorism Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages. Microbes Bacteria Viruses Toxins

10 Nuclear Terrorism Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials Detonate a nuclear weapon No use of nuclear material for non-military terrorism has ever occurred

11 Goals of Terrorists Secure the release of political prisoners Gain territory Demand political changes

12 Terrorist Targets Bomb buildings Massacre citizens Attack police and soldiers Assassinate political leaders


14 Suspicious Things to Look for

15 SampleTerrorist Attacks Blow up railroad stations Release nerve gas Suicide bombers to kill innocent civilians

16 Regional Terrorist Groups Irish Republican Army (IRA) – used terror tactics to force Britain to surrender Northern Ireland ETA – Basque terrorist group – demands that Spain allow the Basque region (between France and Spain) to secede Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka use violence and guerilla warfare to promote a separate state Shining Path in Peru use violence and killings to overthrow Peruvian government

17 Terrorism in the Middle East Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Founded in 1964 Goal – create an independent Palestinian state

18 Terrorism in the Middle East Hezbollah – Lebanese political party and terror organization Employs terror tactics against targets in Israel Funded by Iran with a goal of destroying Israel

19 Islamic Fundamentalists Religious belief that society should be governed by Islamic law Islamic fundamentalism has its roots in Arab nationalism to force out European imperialists, western powers dominating the oil industry, and to destroy Israel Islamic fundamentalists make Israel and western powers scapegoats for their problems Some countries like Iran and Saudi Arabia financially support terrorist organizations

20 al Qaeda (“the base) Powerful Islamic group in Middle East Formerly led by Osama bin Laden (now dead) Osama bin Laden was Saudi Arabian Bin Laden provided aid, training, and money to terrorist groups worldwide His goals were to assist Palestinian terrorists fighting Israel and to expel American power from the Middle East

21 Examples of al Qaeda attacks Bombed two American embassies in 1998 in East Africa Damaged an American navy warship in 2000 Responsible for the coordinated attack on the World Trade Center, Pentagon, and Pennsylvania airplane crash on September 11, 2001

22 Taliban The Taliban – an Islamic fundamentalist group – controlled Afghanistan The Taliban refused to surrender Osamba bin Laden and other al Qaeda terrorists living in Afghanistan The USA invaded Afghanistan and overthrew the Taliban who scattered throughout the region

23 Iraq United States believed Saddam Hussein in Iraq was stockpiling Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) Congress authorized an invasion of Iraq to seize all WMDs American forces never found any evidence of WMDs in Iraq but Saddam Hussein was captured, put on trial, found guilty, and executed by hanging on December 30, 2006 Were the WMDs merely a fabricated pretext to invade Iraq??

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