1. Threat of Terrorism a.Terrorism is defined as the unlawful use or threat of violence to cause fear and to advance political, religious, or ideological goals. b.Terrorist often intentionally target unarmed and unsuspecting civilians during their attacks.
c. Terrorism in history i.It is not a new phenomenon. ii.Terrorism groups have used terrorism for many purposes. They have tried to over throw governments, fight for independence or change society.
d. Terrorist Attacks *Over the past few decades the number of world wide terrorist attacks have increased. i.Examples: 1.Latin America- terrorism there is connected to the illegal drug trade and is a problem in Columbia and Peru. 2.Great Britain- The Irish Republican Army (IRA) have used terrorist attacks on British targets in an attempt to end British control of Northern Ireland. 3.South Asia- In Sri Lanka, the Tamil Tigers have used suicide bombings and other terrorist tactics in their fight for an independent state.
e. Terrorism in the Middle East i.This area has become the focus of international terrorist groups for two main reasons. 1.The ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict 2.The region’s history of Western colonial domination, has led to resent among some Arabs.
ii. Some radical Muslim groups claim that Islam justifies attacks against innocent children. 1.This is an incorrect assumption because it goes against Islamic law and is condemned by most Muslims.
iii. Three Islamic terrorist groups are: Hamas, Hezbollah, al Qaeda. iv. Some groups seek to destroy Israel and create a Palestinian state and others want to rid the Middle East of Western influences. v. Some groups like Hezbollah are supported by a particular country, like Iran.
f. Fighting terrorism i.After the 9/11 attacks the U.S. government took several new course of action to combat this threat. 1.New legislation to strengthen its international and domestic intelligence services. 2.Increased focus on the security of the nation’s borders and transportation networks. 3.Sought to find and cut off funding sources for terrorist networks.
ii. The government also used military action to pressure countries suspected of supporting terrorists. 1.Afghanistan- U.S. led military campaign to force out the Taliban government that supported and protected members of al Qaeda 2.Iraq- Believed country had weapons of mass destruction and supported anti-American terrorist groups.
2. Other threats to world security a.Dangerous Weapons i.Countries around the world possess weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). 1.Definition: WMDs- are weapons, including biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, that cause enormous amount of destruction.
ii. Types of Weapons: 1.Biological: are weapons made with organisms and toxins found in nature, including disease and poisons. a.Example: Anthrax 2.Chemical: These weapons use chemical toxins to kill or injure. a.Example: Mustard Gas and Nerve Gas
3. Nuclear: are the biggest threat to the world in the twenty-first century. a.Non proliferation treaty was signed during the Cold War. This was an arms control agreement meant to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. b.Difficulty i.Nuclear technology can be used for legitimate purposes, such as generating energy.
c. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was formed to routinely monitor countries suspected of developing nuclear weapons. d. Sanctions- are economic or political penalties imposed by one country on another to try to force a change in policy.
b. Ethnic and Religious Conflict *Read pages 1003-1004 and identify two areas/regions of ethnic and religious conflict and describe the situation and any global response given.