2 ObjectivesExplain why nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons threaten global security.Analyze the various terrorist groups and why they are becoming more and more dangerous.Describe the various ways in which the United States and other nations have responded to terrorism.
3 Terms and Peopleproliferate – rapidly spreadterrorism – the use of violence by groups of extremists to achieve political goalsal Qaeda – a fundamentalist Islamic terrorist organization led by Saudi Arabian Osama bin Laden
4 Terms and People (continued) Afghanistan – an Islamic country in Central Asia; invaded by the Soviet Union in 1979; later home to the terrorist organization al QaedaTaliban – Islamic fundamentalist group that governed Afghanistan for nearly ten years until ousted by the United States in 2002
5 What kinds of threats to national and global security do nations face today? An end to global conflict seemed possible at the end of the Cold War.However, threats from terrorism, nuclear weapons, and other weapons of mass destruction continue to endanger the world.
6 The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) exists to stop nuclear weapons from proliferating, or spreading rapidly.Some nations have not signed it, including India, Pakistan, and Israel.Some nations’ nuclear energy programs raised fears that they were really designed to develop nuclear weapons.
7 The United States and Europe gave aid to Russia to dismantle its nuclear weapons. However, the nuclear materials from those weapons were not always secure.The United States and Russia held onto their nuclear stockpiles.When the Soviet Union collapsed, its nuclear arsenal was not secure.
8 Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) come in many different forms. NuclearWeapons such as the atom bombBiologicalGerms that can be released into the air or a water supplyChemicalToxins such as nerve gasRecently, terrorist groups and “rogue states” have tried to acquire WMDs.
9 Nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons are located throughout the world.
10 Terrorism is the use of violence by groups of extremists to achieve political goals. One of the threats to global security today is terrorism.Some terrorist groups are regional, such as the FARC in Columbia, ETA in Spain, and the Shining Path in Peru.
11 Conflict in the Middle East has helped fuel terrorism. The establishment of the state of Israel angered Arabs. Several terrorists groups were formed with the goal of destroying Israel and establishing an independent Palestinian state.Many Muslims also resented American political, economic, and cultural influence in the region.
12 Islamic fundamentalism is a movement that wants to revive Islamic values and install governments that follow Islamic law.It is a response to secular governments in Muslim nations, foreign support for Israel, and the presence of foreign powers in the Middle East.Islamic fundamentalists blame Israel and Western nations for their problems.
13 Osama bin Laden, a wealthy Saudi, led the radical fundamentalist group al Qaeda. He was determined to expel American business, military, and political influence from Saudi Arabia.Al Qaeda launched terrorist attacks against two U.S. embassies in Africa in 1998 and an American naval vessel in an Arabian port in 2000.
14 On September 11, 2001, al Qaeda terrorists made a deadly strike within the United States. They crashed two hijacked airplanes into the World Trade Center in New York City and another into the Pentagon in Washington.A fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania when passengers fought back.
15 More than 2,500 people were murdered on September 11 More than 2,500 people were murdered on September 11. It was the deadliest terrorist attack ever on American soil.
16 President George W. Bush declared a “war on terror” after the 2001 attacks. The United States strengthened its intelligence and security services, and launched an effort to cut off terrorist groups’ funding.Others argued that the threat of terrorism justified strong measures.Some thought that antiterrorist measures violated civil rights and gave too much power to the government.
17 The United States invaded Afghanistan to find and punish the perpetrators of the attack. U.S. and allied forces invaded Afghanistan in 2001 and overthrew the Taliban.They helped the country hold elections and lifted harsh Taliban laws.The Taliban in Afghanistan refused to meet U.S. demands to surrender the terrorists.U.S. troops remained in Afghanistan into 2012.
18 The war in Afghanistan spilled over into neighboring Pakistan. The government of Pakistan agreed to support the United States in the war on terror.At the same time, western Pakistan became a haven for terrorist groups.In 2011, U.S. Navy Seals raided a compound in Pakistan, where they found and killed al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.
19 In 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. President Bush cited reports that said that Iraq was producing WMDs, and suggested that Iraq was involved in the 2001 attacks on the United States.The invasion toppled Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, but no WMDs were found.Americans bitterly debated the war.President Barack Obama withdrew almost all U.S. troops from Iraq in 2011, ending the Iraq War.19
20 Nuclear programs in authoritarian nations threatened global security. Iran announced plans to develop nuclear power plants in the early 2000s. By 2012, Americans were debating whether to take military action against Iran.North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty in The death of North Korea’s longtime dictator in 2011 created uncertainty.