Presentation on theme: "Terrorism. Freedom and fear are at war…Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists. President George W. Bush 20 September, 2001."— Presentation transcript:
Freedom and fear are at war…Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists. President George W. Bush 20 September, 2001
Terrorism Is an unlawful act of violence Intimidates governments or societies Goal is to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives FEAR!
…warfare seeks to conquer territories and capture cities; terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and to scare a lot of people in order to make a point NYTimes, 1/6/2000
Early History of Terrorism Terror has been used to achieve political ends and has a long history.
Types of Terrorism Nationalist Religious State-sponsored Left-wing Right-wing Anarchist Terrorism can be either domestic or international.
Anatomy of a Terrorist Attack Preparation 5 years Terrorism takes much time and planning Execution: 1 day Diagnosed case: 3 days First Deaths Occur
Methods of Terrorism Nuclear Weapon Biological Agents Chemical Agents Explosive and Incendiary Devices
Nuclear Terrorism Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials Detonate a nuclear weapon
Biological Terrorism Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages. Microbes –Bacteria –Viruses –Toxins
Biological Terrorism: Is This Something New? 14th Century – Kaffa –City on Crimean Peninsula Hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it.
Biological Terrorism: Is This Something New? 18 th Century French and Indian War –British Officers gave blankets from smallpox victims to Indians aligned with French –Caused an epidemic in tribes –Effective means of incapacitating group
Example of Chemical Terrorism Sarin nerve agent attacked the Tokyo subway system in March 20, people were killed and 53 were seriously injured
Proportion of death from terrorism in total death in the United States Average death per year From terrorism From all causes Proportion (%) 1990s
Why did terrorism draw considerable attention in 2001? The risk of dying from terrorism was extremely low in 1990s, and was still relatively low compared with some diseases in 2001 But the risk increased by 500 times in 2001 due to Sept. 11 Overall the risk of terrorism has not been high Despite the low risk, shock, surprise and fear engulfed our country and world
U.S. Counterterrorism Policy First, make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals. Second, bring terrorists to justice for their crimes. Third, isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior. Fourth, bolster the counterterrorism capabilities of those countries that work with the U.S. and require assistance.
Terrorism in the Future Could be higher levels of violence. Although technology aids in the defense against terrorism, it also provides terrorists with increased opportunities. –Chemical weapons –Weapons of mass destruction
Conclusion Terrorism is a unlawful act meant to provoke FEAR! Terrorism has a long history of been used to achieve political, religious and ideological objectives Terrorism can be conducted through nuclear, biological, chemical agents and explosive devices The risk of dying from terrorism is much lower than that from motor vehicles, smoking, and alcoholic beverage.