Presentation on theme: "Forklift Operator Training OSHA Powered Industrial Trucks"— Presentation transcript:
1 Forklift Operator Training OSHA 1910.178 Powered Industrial Trucks Adopted from the OSHA Forklift presentation for FEMA warehouse forklift operator trainingThe scope provisions of (a), which are based on ANSI B , remain in effect and cover:... fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines.It does not apply to compressed air or nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, farm vehicles, nor vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling.This scope covers general industry, construction and shipyards.Developed by HMTRI through cooperative agreement# 2 U45 ES with NIEHS under the Worker Safety and Health Training Support Annex
2 Objectives of this training - At the end of this session, you should be able to: Identify the hazards involved with Powered Industrial Trucks (PITs)Explain the different types of PITsConduct a PIT visual inspectionPass the written testDemonstrate proficient operator skills on a forkliftTrainer Notes:State and federal agencies are deploying in support of hurricane relief effortsEnvironmental and occupational health hazards are a potential threat to deployed personnelHurricane Katrina left the Louisiana and Mississippi coastlines in ruin. Up to 1 million people are without power, safe food, and safe water.Additional Training is required for specific operations involving, but not limited to:Confined SpacesExcavationsHeavy Equipment operatorsFall ProtectionWork Zone Safety
3 OSHA 1910.178 Powered Industrial Trucks - Operator Training (a)(2)(xiv)(b)(10)(d)General Industry: is amended March 1, 1999) by revising paragraph (l) and adding Appendix A.Shipyard Employment: New section and Appendix A are added.Maritime and Construction Standards: [ (a), (a)(2)(xiv), (b)(10), (d)] refer back to (l).Longshoring: Section is amended by adding new paragraph (b)(10) and Appendix A.OSHA’s Office of Training and Education wishes to acknowledge the following for contributing some of the graphics used in this presentation:Caterpillar Lift TrucksMason Contractors Association of AmericaIndustrial Truck AssociationState of Utah Labor Commission - Occupational Safety & Health DivisionSteamship Trade Association of BaltimoreTaylor Machine Works, Inc.UAW - Ford National Joint Committee on Health and SafetyAppearance of products does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor.
4 Powered Industrial Truck - Definition A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack or tier materials. [American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) definition]Excluded are vehicles used for earth moving and over-the-road hauling.Commonly known as forklifts, pallet trucks, rider trucks, forktrucks, or lifttrucks.Can be powered through electric or combustion engines.
5 Performance-Oriented Requirements The powered industrial truck operator training requirements are performance-oriented to permit employers to tailor a training program to the characteristics of their workplaces and the particular types of powered industrial trucks operated.
6 Operator Training Safe operations The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by successful completion of the training and evaluation specified in the OSHA standard.Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered industrial truck (except for training purposes), the employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully completed the required training (or previously received appropriate training).
7 Training Program Implementation Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:Under direct supervision of a person who has the knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and,Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.
8 Training Program Implementation (continued) Training shall consist of a combination of:Formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, written material),Practical training (demonstrations and exercises performed by the trainee), andEvaluation of the operator’s performance in the workplace
9 Training Program Implementation (continued) Training and evaluation shall be conducted by a person with the knowledge, training and experience to train powered industrial truck operators and evaluate their competence.
10 Training Program Content Operators shall receive initial training in the following topics, except in topics which the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation in the employer’s workplace.Truck-related topicsWorkplace-related topicsThe requirements of the standard
11 Training Program Content (continued) Truck-related topicsOperating instructions, warnings and precautionsDifferences from automobileControls and instrumentationEngine or motor operationSteering and maneuveringVisibilityFork and attachment adaptation, operation, useVehicle capacity and stabilityVehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to performRefueling/Charging/ Recharging batteriesOperating limitationsOther instructions, etc.
12 Training Program Content (continued) Workplace-related topicsSurface conditionsComposition and stability of loadsLoad manipulation, stacking, unstackingPedestrian trafficNarrow aisles and restricted areasOperating in hazardous (classified) locationsOperating on ramps and sloped surfacesPotentially hazardous environmental conditionsOperating in closed environments or other areas where poor ventilation or maintenance could cause carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust buildup
13 Refresher Training and Evaluation Refresher training, including an evaluation of the effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted to ensure that the operator has the knowledge and skills needed to operate the powered industrial truck safely.Refresher training required when:Unsafe operationAccident or near-missEvaluation indicates needDifferent type of equipment introducedWorkplace condition changes
14 Refresher Training and Evaluation (continued) An evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator’s performance must be conducted:After initial training,After refresher training, andAt least once every three years
15 CertificationThe employer shall certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated as required by the standard.Certification shall include:Name of operatorDate of trainingDate of evaluationIdentity of person(s) performing the training or evaluation
16 Appendix A - Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks DefinitionsGeneralBasic PrinciplesStability TriangleLongitudinal StabilityLateral StabilityDynamic StabilityAppendix A provides non-mandatory guidance to assist employers in implementing the standard.This appendix does not add to, alter, or reduce the requirements of this section.
17 Stability Triangle - Figure 1 Vehicle Center ofGravity (Unloaded)BACenter of Gravityof Vehicle andMaximum Load(Theoretical)CNotes:1. When the vehicle is loaded, the combined center of gravity (CG) shifts toward line B-C. Theoretically the maximum load will result in the CG at the line B-C. In actual practice, the combined CG should never be at line B-C.2. The addition of additional counterweight will cause the truck CG to shift toward point A and result in a truck that is less stable laterally.
18 Stability Triangle - Figure 2 Load CGLoad CGVerticalStabilityLine(Line of Action)Combined CGCombined CGVerticalStabilityLine(Line of Action)Truck CGTruck CGThis vehicle is unstable andwill continue to tip overThe vehicle is stable
19 Effective Powered Industrial Truck Operator Training Program Four major areas of concern must be addressed:The general hazards that apply to the operation of all or most powered industrial trucks;The hazards associated with the operation of particular types of trucks;The hazards of workplaces generally; and,The hazards of the particular workplace where the vehicle operates.
20 Types of Powered Industrial Trucks There are many different types of powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard.Commonly used types include:High lift trucks, counterbalanced trucks, cantilever trucks, rider trucks, forklift trucks, high lift trucks, high lift platform trucks, low lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, pallet trucks, straddle trucks, reach rider trucks, high lift order picker trucks, motorized hand/rider trucks, and counterbalanced front/side loader lift trucks.A single type of truck can only be described by calling it by all of its characteristics, (e.g., a high lift, counterbalanced, sit down rider truck).
21 Unique Characteristics of Powered Industrial Trucks Each type of powered industrial truck has its own unique characteristics and some inherent hazards.To be effective, training must address the unique characteristics of the type of vehicle the employee is being trained to operate.
22 A PIT is a PIT NOT a CAR Controls are different from those of cars. Steer very differently than cars.Are used for different purposes than cars.Steer from the rear, and have drive wheels in the front.When turning, the rear end swings in a circle.Front drive wheels support most of the load.Less steering control when turning, especially if loaded.Difficult to stop quickly and dangerous to swerve.17
23 Components of a Forklift Truck* *One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks
24 Classes of Commonly-Used Powered Industrial Trucks* The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered industrial trucks into 7 classes.Class I - Electric motor rider trucksClass II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucksClass III - Electric motor hand trucks or hand/rider trucksClass IV - Internal combustion engine trucks (solid/cushion tires)Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks (pneumatic tires)Class VI - Electric and internal combustion engine tractorsClass VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks* Note that this classification refers to commonly-used vehicles and does not include all powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard.
25 Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks Counterbalanced rider type, stand upThree wheel electric trucks, sit-downCounterbalanced rider type, cushion tires, sit-down (high and low platform)Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic tire, sit-down (high and low platform)
27 Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires Fork, counterbalanced (cushion/solid tires)
28 Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires
29 Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Pneumatic Tires Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic tires)
30 Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires)
31 Pre-use InspectionMust be done at least daily or at the beginning of each shiftCheck the power-plantGas, Diesel or Propane PoweredElectric PoweredCheck for damage and proper operation.Additional information on checklists may be found at the following link:16
32 Performance DataGross vehicle weight without a load will always exceed the vehicle’s rated lifting capacityGross vehicle weight will normally be about 2 times the vehicle’s rated capacityWeight distribution varies depending on load weight and position21
33 Load Stability NEVER EXCEED the rated load capacity of your PIT Look for Impact or Capacity plate to find:>machine working capacity>gross vehicle weight>rated load center>capacity rating with attachment>tire data>attachment identification>maximum lift height22
34 Reduce your load if:The load is too tall, wide, oddly shaped or if you are using attachments.A high lift is involved or if the route is rough.The load can’t be centered on the pallet or carried close to your drive wheels.You have to make tight turns or travel on a ramp or slope.23
35 To Keep the Load Stable: Space your forks as far apart as possible.Make sure the load won’t shift while traveling.Secure loose or slippery items.Transfer loads on broken pallets to sound pallets before picking them up.Wrap or strap loads made up of individual items.24
36 Load Capacity Attachments Batteries When in doubt consult your supervisor25
37 Stability in PracticeYour PIT and load become less stable in any of the following situations:whenever the load is raisedwhen you are turningon slopes, either front to back or side to sidewhen tilting the load forward or backward, or side to sideon rough or uneven surfaces26
38 Center of Gravity and Stability Triangle Drive TiresSteering Axle18
39 Center of Gravity Will Shift STATIC FORCESare affected by:a) load characteristicsb) lift heightc) amount of tiltd) tire conditionDYNAMIC FORCESare affected by:a) accelerationb) travel speedsc) brakingd) surface condition19
40 Counterbalanceload is carried at front of vehicle and is offset or counterbalanced by the weight of the vehicle located behind the drive tires which act as a pivot pointinternal combustion-engine, steer axle, transmission, counterweight, and frameelectric powered battery, control panel, motors and pumps, steer axle, counterweight, and frame20
41 Some Questions to Help Judge a Load: What is the rated load capacity of my truck?Is this load well within the capacity limits?Will the shape of this load affect my stability?Will the load affect my visibility?Do I need to split up the load?Do I need to drive in reverse?What hazards are along the route??27
42 Some Questions to Help Judge a Load: What turns will I have to negotiate?Are there ramps, slopes, rough ground or obstacles?What about the destination?Can I get close enough?Can I pull straight in?Is the area free of overhead hazards like power lines, pipes or ventilation equipment??28
43 Principles of Internal Combustion Fuel TypeEngine Starting ConditionsRefuelingChanging an LP TankGasoline29
44 Principles of Electric Battery Power Three Primary Voltage TypesRecharging a BatteryTrained Personnel ONLYSOPsPPEDesignated Areas ONLY30
45 Maintenance of PITs If defective, take out of service Repair by authorized personnel onlyRepair parts as safe or safer than originalDo not alter from manufacturer’s designRepair in designated location31
46 Safe Parking Procedures How and Where to Park?Attended ParkingUnattended ParkingParking on an incline32
47 Lifting a LoadLevel the forks and slowly drive forward until the load rests against the mast.Do not slam a load into the carriage.Lift the load high enough to clear whatever is under it.Assess the stability of the load.Tilt the mast back slightly to a traveling position.33
48 Lifting a LoadIf there is another load in front of yours, lift without tilting.Reassess load stability.Look over both shoulders to make sure it is safe to move in reverse.If there are no obstacles to the rear, back out slowly about one foot to insure the load will clear.Back away to completely clear the load.Lower load to travel and reassess load stability.34
49 Carrying the Load Keep your vehicle under control at all times Keep forks close to floorMaintain safe distance (3 vehicle lengths)Examine surfaces - safety and strengthSafe speed - a brisk walking pace35
50 Carrying the Load Stay within the vehicle lanes. Look over both shoulders before you back up.Stop before raising or lowering loads.Tilt the load slightly back with forks low.Drive at a slow, steady pace.Observe speed limits and controlledSlow down for turns, sound your horn and stay near the inside corner.36
51 Carrying the LoadSlow down and sound your horn at intersections and places with limited view.Drive in reverse if your vision is obstructed by your load.Yield to pedestrians - always!!!37
52 Carrying the Load Never travel or turn with the load elevated. Never drive up to anyone standing in front of a fixed object.38
53 Carrying the LoadNever allow anyone to stand on your fork or lift people without an approved platform.Never allow anyone to walk or stand under your forks, whether the forks are loaded or empty.
54 Carrying the LoadSurfaces you should avoid or be very careful on or around include:Loose objects, bumps or uneven floorsRough surfacesWet, oily or icy surfacesRailroad tracks and similar edges, which you should cross at a 45-degree angle whenever possible39
55 Putting Down a LoadSquare up and stop about 1 foot away from the loading areaDrive about 1/2 way into the unloading areaLower the load, assess alignment, stabilityLower forks slightlyLook over both shoulders and back out slowly40
56 Working with StacksThe higher you go - the less stable your PIT and load41
57 Working with Stacks Remember these stacking rules: Set the top load squarely on the stackNever raise or lower a load unless you fully stopNever attempt to turn with your mast raisedApproach load straight on and back straight outMake sure you have enough overhead clearanceWatch for electrical lines, pipes, fixtures, sprinklers42
58 Traveling on Grades Stay well back from the edge Never turn around on the slopeDrive with your load on the uphill side!!!When loaded, drive up slopes with your load in front and drive down slopes in reverse.When the forks are empty, back up a slope and drive down it forward.43
59 Working on Docks DOCK WORK CHECK SHEET Check to make sure that wheels are chocked!Check the front support on a trailer to insure it won’t shift.Check to make sure the train car or trailer brakes as set.Check the dock locks.Check the deck capacity.Check combined vehicle and load weight.Check dock plate condition and position.44
60 Do not jump from the unit! In Case of a Tip-overDo not jump from the unit!HOLD ON TIGHTBRACE YOUR FEETLEAN AWAY FROM THE TIP DIRECTION45
61 SummaryOperating a Powered Industrial Truck is a highly skilled job that is dangerous if not done properly.You need to know all about your PIT and its operation including:design and functioncontrols and instrumentspre-use inspectionstabilitycapacity and visibility46