57th on OSHA’s Top 10 listPowered Industrial Trucks – (3,262 Total Violations)Top 5 sections cited:(L)(l) Failure to ensure each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely(L)(4)(iii) Failure to evaluate each powered industrial truck operator’s performance at least once every three years(L)(6) Failure to certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated(p)(1) Failure to take damaged powered industrial trucks out of service(Q)(7) Failure to examine powered industrial trucks before placing in serviceMost Frequently Cited StandardsThe following were the top 10 most frequently cited standards in fiscal year 2009 (October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009):1. Scaffolding, general requirements, construction (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]2. Fall protection, construction (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]3. Hazard communication standard, general industry (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]4. Respiratory protection, general industry (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]5. Control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout), general industry (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]6. Ladders, construction (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]7. Powered industrial trucks, general industry (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]8. Electrical, wiring methods, components and equipment, general industry (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]9. Electrical systems design, general requirements, general industry (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]10. Fall protection, training requirements (29 CFR ) [related OSHA Safety and Health Topics page]
6Benefits to Forklift Safety Training Improve AttitudeIncrease ProductionIncrease Operator SafetyLower Maintenance CostsLower # of Accidents/SeverityLower Insurance CostFulfill OSHA RequirementsOSHA requires Operators to:Receive Formal TrainingBe Tested on MaterialView & Demonstrate:Safe Operation & Load HandlingBe EvaluatedBe Certified
7! Labels Warning Label Caution Label Danger Label Danger = An extreme Hazard which can kill or cause very serious harm every time.Warning: Not as serious as danger but could cause serious injury or deathCaution: Message to help you avoid damage to your self or the equipmentNote: Ways to improve your work or truck operationThese stickers are on the truck for one reason only. Someone did what it says not to and ended up bleeding, hurt or broke the truck. My dad used to always tell me to try to learn from other peoples mistakes. If you pay attention to the warnings on the truck you will most likely not end up bleeding or injured!
8Nameplate / Data PlateEach operator is required to be aware of the truck specifications on the nameplate and what they mean. If there is a special attachment, it must be listed on the nameplate. (SOME MFG’S DO NOT ALLOW BASKETS)The nameplate (also called the data plate) provides important information for the forklift operator, including the fuel type, forklift weight, and capacity. Operators should read the nameplate to know the forklift’s capabilities and limitations. Requirements and Recommended Practices: OSHA requirements state: Approved trucks shall bear a label or some other identifying mark indicating approval by the testing laboratory. See paragraph (a)(7) and paragraph 405 of "American National Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI B ", which is incorporated by reference in paragraph (a)(2) and which provides that if the powered industrial truck is accepted by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, it should be so marked. [29 CFR (a)(3)]Train employees to properly read and understand the nameplate and to know what the information means.Ensure every truck has its durable, corrosion-resistant nameplate legibly inscribed with the following information:Truck model and serial numberTruck weightDesignation of compliance with the mandatory requirements of ASME B56.1, "Safety Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks," applicable to the manufacturerType designation to show conformance with the requirements, such as those prescribed by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., and Factory Mutual Research CorporationCapacityDo not operate a truck with an illegible or missing nameplate.Additional Information: ANSI/ITSDF B56.1 calls for additional information on nameplates on high-lift trucks, electric trucks, and trucks intended for use in hazardous locations. [See ANSI/ITSDF B56.1, "Safety Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks," Section 7.5, "Nameplates and Markings"]The capacity is the manufacturer’s guideline for how much weight a forklift can safety lift. Exceeding the capacity of a forklift presents serious hazards, including tipover. The nameplate in Figure 2 indicates that the forklift is an LPS type, which is a liquid petroleum gas powered unit provided with additional safeguards to operate in certain hazardous locations. The truck weight is 8,680 pounds and its capacity is 5,000 pounds at a 24 inch load center to a maximum height of 130 inches. The nameplate indicates that the capacity of the forklift with the sideshifter attachment is 4,500 pounds to a maximum height of 156 inches. If the load has a different load center or it is irregular, such as a series of boxes of varying weights, then the capacity must be recalculated. [See Load Composition]. Requirements and Recommended Practices:Train employees to properly read the nameplate and to understand what the information means.Check the nameplate for carrying capacities and maximum height.Do not exceed the capacity of the truck.Understand that the addition of an attachment generally lowers the capacity of a forklift. Understand that the size, position and weight distribution of the load also affects the capacity. Capacity assumes the center of gravity of the load is at the load center on the label. If this is not the case, an irregularly shaped load may exceed the forklift's capacity.LP plate (shown above)Capacity plate, Name plate, Data plate. All lift trucks are required to have a capacity plate which is attached to the truck and ledgible.Cover Model 7 series F=forklift G=gas C=cushion U=USA made 25=base capacityCover serial number which truck in series to come off the lineCover mast has to do with mast designCover back tilt which is determined by overall lift heightCover attachment all attachments affect capactiy and truck must be rated for all attachments used on it.Cover Type- this is the fuel source of the truck and can mean life or death, we’ll talk more about type later.Cover front tread is width of front axle from center of tire to center of tireCover tire size is what size tire the truck was rated for capacity with.Cover approx. weight- this truck weighs about 8600 lbs.Cover the capacity chart and line drawings.column A is lift height from floor to top of forkscolumn B is load center, as shown here most trucks rated with 24” load center.Columb C is offset allowed by attachment.column CAPACITY is the capacity of the truck. In this case 4650 lbs.You need to find this on your truck and study it. If you don’t understand ask. If you are unsure of the weight of a load ask someone.Electric Plate (shown above (bottom right)
9Types of Forklifts Types of ForkliftsType, Description & Class Stand Up Rider - Forklift has a counterbalance weight in the body. The rider stands inside the body of the forklift. Class 1 Electric Rider Counterbalanced TruckStand Up Rider - Narrow Aisle- The forklift has straddle legs on both sides of the forks to provide stability in the absence of a counterweight in the body. Class 2 Electric Narrow Aisle Truck Stand Up Reach Rider - Narrow Aisle- Forks extend in and out as well as up, down, and tilt. Class 2 Electric Narrow Aisle Truck Stand Up Rider - Order Picker - The operator stands on a platform in front and along with the controls is transported to the elevated location. Class 2 Electric Narrow Aisle Truck Sit Down Rider - The forklift has a counterbalance in the rear. Class 1 Truck* Class 4 Truck** Class 5 Truck*** * If electric powered. ** If internal combustion (gas, diesel or LP gas) powered with solid tires. *** If internal combustion powered with pneumatic tires . Motorized Hand Pallet Jack - A low lift (ground level) unit has forks or a platform. Some models allow the operator to stand on the back. Others, like the one shown, are walked Class 3 Electric Motor/Hand/Rider Truck Reach Forklift - The forklift has large pneumatic tires. It has a boom which raises and extends. It has outriggers at the front to stabilize the forklift on soft or uneven ground. A reach forklift might also resemble a sit-down rider as shown above. It is bigger with large pneumatic tires and a large mast with large forks. It is powered by an internal combustion engine. Class 7 Reach/Rough Terrain Forklift Truck
10OSHA says you SHALL Read and Understand the Operator’s Manual If its not on the truck ask your boss where it is
11The Main Parts of the Truck Read operator's manual for your forkliftFollow the manufacturer's recommendations.
12Lift Truck vs. Automobiles For personal useWeighs less than 5,000 lbs.Front wheel steeringTraining requiredOperates on smooth, paved surfacesLift TrucksNot for personal useWeighs greater than 5,000 lbs.Rear wheel steeringTraining requiredOperates on various surfaces(I)(3)(i)(B) Differences between the truck and the automobile;CushionSmooth, dry surfacesLess tractionLow ground clearanceMore compact dimensionsNot for uneven, rough or wet surfacesPneumaticIndoor or outdoorBetter tractionGreater ground clearanceLarger dimensionsOptional solid, softer tires
13Mast: What do you really need to know? Never reach into/through mastNever stand under forks/loadNever allow others underTHIS is what you need to know about masts!NEVER reach into or through a mast.Never allow anyone under or on forks, keep people away when you are operating or put the forks on the ground apply the brake neutralize direction control and shut the truck off.Masts are where most mechanics loose a finger, hand or part of an arm.DISCUSS PICTURE FIRSTA 23-year-old Hispanic forklift operator died when he was crushed in the mast structure of a forklift while unloading cargo on pallets from a truck trailer. The victim was found leaning forward over the forklift’s steering wheel with his right leg against the forklift controls and his head in between the beams of the inner and outer masts. The CA/FACE investigator determined that in order to prevent future occurrences employers, as part of their Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP), should:Ensure employees who operate forklifts do not extend any part of their body outside of the operator's compartment while the forklift is running.Ensure employees who operate forklifts wear their seatbelts while the forklifts are running.V mastTwo stagesLimited free lift (4-6”)FV mastFree lift (50-60”)Load and unload capabilitiesLift height about 144”FSV mastThree stagesLoad and unloadHigh stack heights (190”)QSVFour stagesLoad and unload plus high stacking (276”)
14Lift Truck Balance Internal Combustion Electric Powered CounterweightElectric PoweredIndustrial batteryA Sit down rider type of truck is a counterbalance truck. The weight of the truck counterbalances the weight of the load. Like a teeter totter when you were a kid.electric truck, the battery is your primary counterweight.(l)(3)(ii)(B) Composition of loads to be carried and load stability;Operators responsibility to handle only well balanced and secure loads within the capacity of the truck.Center of Gravity moves when ever the speed or direction of the truck or load changes. Example - Holding a string, with a ball at the end and moving around the room provides good demonstration of the CG moving when the truck is moving. Or going around a curve in your car and being pressed against the door.
15Imbalance Moving center of gravity outside stability Pyramid: Loss of steeringLoss of tractionUnstable loadPotential for a tip overPotential for a tip upTo sum up, It is essential to only lift loads in the capacity of the truck. When you are operating the truck loaded or empty it is important to remember the CG moves and can affect the stability of the truck. It is very important that you practice using smooth controlled inputs to the trucks controls. You should anticipate what you will need to do before you get there so starts, stops, turns and hydraulic usage can all be done in a smooth controlled manner. Not only is it easier on you, it is easier on the equipment.These are just a few of the causes of tip over's. Please do not invent any more. You have the power to keep the truck under control at all times, and should do so.OverloadingSharp turnsBraking abruptlyExcessive speedHorseplayPot holesOverhead obstructionsWet, uneven surfacesRampsLow tire pressure
16Industrial trucks shall be examined before being placed in service… Daily Inspection(q)(7)Industrial trucks shall be examined before being placed in service…Read the text.You are responsible for doing a daily inspection.It does not have to be written.You only have to write if you find something wrong with the truck, then go and tell your supervisor and give the write up to them.I do not believe I could do a good inspection without having a sheet to guide me through the process.If you do not do written inspections I would suggest taking the inspection form for the truck and using clear tape to attach it to the DOG or CWT. That way you have a guide for completing the inspection.(q)(7)Industrial trucks shall be examined before being placed in service, and shall not be placed in service if the examination shows any condition adversely affecting the safety of the vehicle. Such examination shall be made at least daily. Where industrial trucks are used on a round-the-clock basis, they shall be examined after each shift. Defects when found shall be immediately reported and corrected.
17Why Do A Pre-Operation Inspection? Reduction in downtimeReduction in costImproved safetyBetter care of equipmentOSHA requires it!
18Completion of Inspection Report defects to appropriate personnelNever operate a truck in need of repairAuthorized & trained personnel repair trucksIf you find something wrong just writing it down doesn’t cover your personal responsibility. You need to go tell your supervisor about the problem and not operate the truck.
19The Visual Inspection Overall condition Frame Tires & wheels Forks Front-endOHGI/C engine compartmentHood latch/battery restraintLP componentsElectric componentsCapacity platesWarning decals & platesOperator’s compartmentFrame: Loose bolts, shiny where touches frame, red colored powder looks like dripping outTires: cuts more than 1/3 across and to ring, tread gone, smooth tire worn to top of writing on side wall, chunksWheels: look at lug nuts for loose and in place. Not leaning at a funny angle.Forks: cracks bends fork lock pins functionalFront end: Mast area looking at chains, each link just like link above and below, hoses dry and not cut, not debris caught in mechanism no banding wrapped around axle no leaksDOG: Look for any damage, broken welds, cracks, safety stickers legibleIC engine compartment: check engine oil, transmission fluid, hydraulic oil, check overflow bottle for coolant levelHood latch/battery restraint: ensure hood latches down on IC trucks, electric trucks ensure battery restraint in place and or hood latches down properlyLP components: look for frost on components which denote leak, tag out leaking trucks and report to supervisor.Electric components: look for exposed copper on cables, damaged cables, on SB connectors burn marks melted/broken plastic or burned/pitted contacts.Capacity plates: must be on trucks, legible, accurately show any attachments.Warning decals and plates: must be legible and in place.Operators compartment: Steps clean mirrors clean pedals have covers and are free of grease/dirt. all controls function properly.VISUAL
20The Operational Inspection Operator restraint systemHornWarning devicesUnusual engine noiseFuel levelGauge readingsHydraulicsSteering lock to lockService brakePark brakePlugging on electric powered truckssimple way to check that your service brakes will most likely slow the truck when you step on the pedal. Get used to putting your foot on the pedal and applying pressure, the pedal should not continuously sink under your foot. If you feel a solid pedal which does not sink begin to check the park brake.Park Brake: A park brake is designed to hold a truck still on an approximate 15% grade, depending on the specific truck, with a capacity load. When doing your inspection a decent way to test the park brake, on an IC truck, is to with the brake applied in an open area with no drop-offs, select a direction and slowly accelerate the engine. The brake should hold the truck still. If your park brake held the truck still we need to continue the check on the service brake letting off the throttle, release the park brake, give just enough throttle to move the truck very slowly and step on the brakes. The truck should stop. If the truck stopped move the truck slightly faster and apply the brakes, the truck should stop in a straight line and not pull to either side. Always check the brakes moving forward and if you have any question that they might not be operating properly tag the truck out and ask your supervisor. On stand up trucks the truck should not move with your foot OFF the pedal and the throttle depressed. On a stand up truck if you move the truck in a safe direction very slowly and release the foot pedal the truck should slow and stop. Remember; release the brake pedal to stop in an emergency, use plugging to stop or control speed during operation.Plugging on electric trucks: In an open area free of any drop offs or obstructions move the truck in a safe direction at a very slow speed and then pull the directional controller in the opposite direction, the truck should smoothly slow and reverse direction. If the truck slams into the opposite direction or spins a tire when changing to the other direction tav the truck out and tell your supervisor. If the truck did smoothly decelerate and change direction try again at a slightly faster speed and ensure it is safe, you have to learn how the truck is going to react when you plug. It is your responsibility to maintain control at all times.
21Designated Areas G-Gasoline GS-Gasoline with Safeguards. What they mean by safeguards is the exhaust will have some type of spark arrest system so sparks don’t leave the exhaust pipe, also there will be safety devices on the fuel system which seal it better than normal and the electrical system will have a special enclosed alternator and any wire connections will be sealed so if they get loose and arc or spark the area wont ignite.LP-Liquefied Petroleum gasLPS-LP with Safeguards. These safeguards are just like on the gasoline with safeguards.D-DieselDs-Diesel with SafeguardsG- GasolineGS-Gasoline with safeguardsLP- Liquefied Petroleum GasLPS- LP with SafeguardsCN- Compressed Natural GasCNS- Compressed Natural Gas with SafeguardsD- DieselDS- Diesel with SafeguardsDY- Diesel no Electrical systemE- Electric (Battery)ES- Electric SafeguardsEE- Electric EnclosedEX- Electric Explosion Proof (Resistant)
22Operating a Forklift Traveling & Maneuvering Mounting – DismountingHazardsFalls & Hitting HeadMounting and Dismounting Potential Hazards:Hitting head on overhead cage. Slips, trips and falls, especially feet slipping off step.Requirements and Recommended Practices:Be sure that your hands are clean and dry to prevent slipping when grabbing handhold. Check your shoes for grease before entering the vehicle. Grasp handhold and get a good grip. Never grab the steering wheel because it could cause you to lose balance if it moves. Always be careful with your footing when mounting and dismounting vehicle. Pull or lower your body carefully into or out of cab. Dismounting is the opposite of mounting -- do not jump. Wear appropriate footwear to prevent skids.
23Operating a Forklift Starting & Stopping Use Pre-Op and Operation Checklist before startingEnsure way is clearSound horn /Use spotters if neededProceed slowlyStoppingPark in authorized areasApply brakes slowlyNeutralize controlsSet parking brakeTurn off engineBlock wheels on inclines
24Operating a Forklift Operational Speeds Hazards: Tip over & CollisionsAware of travel route conditionsSlow speedsWatch in direction of travel routeSlow Down/Sound horn when approaching –- Intersections, blind corners- Sharp curves- Pedestrians- Other vehiclesTurn wheel in slow-smooth- sweeping motionAscend/Descend grades slowlyGrades > 10% - load driven upgradeThree truck length following another vehicleWatch overhead obstructionsWatch rear end swing
25Safe Operating Guidelines Safe distance from docks and ramps, stairway, fire aisle & equipmentNo on-the-go directional changes (IC trucks)Operating surfaces must support truck and loadTractor trailersElevators capacity, entry, parkMulti-story buildingsSlow down on wet, slippery or uneven floors and tight areasAvoid Debris on floor- remove if possibleHazardous materials:Know what it isHow to handleHow to clean upRefer to appropriate MSDS sheetCross railroad tracks & rough surfaces at an angle(n)(1)All traffic regulations shall be observed, including authorized plant speed limits. A safe distance shall be maintained approximately three truck lengths from the truck ahead, and the truck shall be kept under control at all times.(n)(2)The right of way shall be yielded to ambulances, fire trucks, or other vehicles in emergency situations.(m)(14)Fire aisles, access to stairways, and fire equipment shall be kept clear.(n)(12)Elevators shall be approached slowly, and then entered squarely after the elevator car is properly leveled. Once on the elevator, the controls shall be neutralized, power shut off, and the brakes set.(n)(13)Motorized hand trucks must enter elevator or other confined areas with load end forward.(n)(5)Railroad tracks shall be crossed diagonally wherever possible. Parking closer than 8 feet from the center of railroad tracks is prohibited.(n)(14)Running over loose objects on the roadway surface shall be avoided.(n)(15)While negotiating turns, speed shall be reduced to a safe level by means of turning the hand steering wheel in a smooth, sweeping motion. Except when maneuvering at a very low speed, the hand steering wheel shall be turned at a moderate, even rate.
26Speed vs. Reaction Speed 8.7 mph Equals 13 feet per second Reaction Time18-21 years = ¾ second21- over = 1.5 secondReaction TimeThe reaction time of people must be accounted for when considering accident prevention. Reaction time represents the “time interval elapsing between the beginning of the signal (stimulus) and the completion of the operator’s response. Hence, it includes the time required by the operator to sense the signal (sensing time).” Plus that required to decide what response to make (decision time), plus that required to (respond time).” (Human Engineering Guide to Equipment Design, Morgan, Cook, Chapanis, & Lund, p. 227) Studies in forklift operator reaction time have shown that an average operator takes about 0.75 seconds to become aware of the existence of the hazard, and another second to actually react and move the lift or bring it to a stop.Low level carbon monoxide, prescription drugs, over the counter drugs and other things can effect reaction time.
27Pedestrian Traffic Pedestrians have right of way When approaching corners, intersections:When passing pedestriansPedestrians have right of wayWhen approaching corners, intersections:Slow downSound hornCheck convex mirrorsNo passingWhen passing pedestriansEstablish eye contactStay clear of pedestriansWhen working:Signal pedestrians to stopWave them on when you are finishedWait until they are safely out of the wayWatch out for rear end swing in tight quartersAbsolutely, no riders(l)(3)(ii)(D)Pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle will be operated;(n)(1)All traffic regulations shall be observed, including authorized plant speed limits. A safe distance shall be maintained approximately three truck lengths from the truck ahead, and the truck shall be kept under control at all times.(n)(2)The right of way shall be yielded to ambulances, fire trucks, or other vehicles in emergency situations.(n)(3)Other trucks traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations shall not be passed.(n)(4)The driver shall be required to slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed. If the load being carried obstructs forward view, the driver shall be required to travel with the load trailing.(m)(3)Unauthorized personnel shall not be permitted to ride on powered industrial trucks. A safe place to ride shall be provided where riding of trucks is authorized.
28Operating the Forklift Using the Pedal Hazards: Collision – Damage to load or equipment – Brake failureNot all trucks are fitted with this pedal. Over 50% of all trucks do have this pedal.Proper use of the inching pedal increases the operator's control of the forklift in tight spaces.Potential Hazards:While using the inching pedal, be aware of these potential hazards:Collision and property damage.Damage to racking, pallets or load.Brake failure due to improper use of the inching pedal.Requirements and Recommended Practices:Do not "ride" the inching pedal. Premature transmission failure and brake lining wear may occur as the inching pedal creates a partially disengaged condition.Depress the inching pedal and slowly approach the load. When the inching pedal is depressed, the hydraulic pressure to the clutch is progressively reduced, thus disengaging the drive.Use the inching pedal when shifting from forward to reverse.Do not put your foot on the inching pedal or brake pedal unless you are using it.Tip: Inching pedals may have many special features and advanced controls in larger, rough-terrain forklifts that have precision transmission inching control for use on grades.
29Operating Forklift Steering/Turning/Changing Directions Hazards:Tip over : Collision : Struck-by/Crushing Injuries : Load fallsDosComplete stop before turningUse Horn/Lights to warn when ReversingKeep clear view in direction of travelUse guides/mirrors/spottersGive room to pedestriansReduce speed to turnForward UpgradeReverse DowngradeDon’tsGrab over head bar when reversingTurn on gradesSpeedTravel with forks raisedMake wide turns
30Operating a Forklift Parking Hazards: Struck-by injuries & unintended movement25’ limit for in operators controlOn hard level surfaceIn authorized areasFully engage parking brakeNeutralize controlsTilt mast forwardLower load to groundTurn off engine & Take keyDo Not jump offTips of Forks should be flat against the floor
31Operating the Forklift Safe Handling PrepApproachingMast PositionFork PositionLifting the loadLowering the loadHigh TieringTruck/Trailer/RR carsSAFE TRAVEL PRACTICESAlways have a clear viewObserve traffic rulesYield Right-of-Way to emergenciesKeep load lowDo Not PassDiagonally cross RR tracksOperate at speeds to allow controlSecure dock plates before driving on themNo horseplay/stunts/ridersKeep arms/legs inside the cabDo not travel in pedestrians walkways
32Some manufacturers will not allow baskets! AttachmentsPowered industrial trucks often use various attachments in place of traditional forks. These attachments increase the versatility of the truck, but can present important safety considerations, including stability, capacity, and visibility.Some manufacturers will not allow baskets!Modifications or additions that affect capacity or safe operation shall not be performed without prior written approval from the forklift truck manufacturer. Capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be changed accordingly. [29 CFR (a)(4)]If no response or a negative response is received from the manufacturer, written approval of the modification/addition from a qualified registered professional engineer is acceptable. A qualified registered professional engineer must perform a safety analysis and address any safety or structural issues contained in the manufacturer’s negative response before granting approval. The forklift nameplatesSome common attachments are:Slip-sheet attachments which avoid the use of pallets. (Figure 2 and 3) Side shifters which have forks that can be shifted right and left. (Figure 4) Container handlers designed to lift shipping containers. Carton clamps equipped with a pressure valve to squeeze the load. Cotton or pulp bale clamps that grab and hold bales. Roll handlers that handle paper rolls. Barrel clamp. (Figure 5) Rotators that grab and rotate the rolls. Extending or telescoping forks such as in reach and turret trucks. (Figure 6) Personnel platforms specially designed for the lifting of personnel.Operators need to be trained in the proper use of attachments because they alter the performance of the forklift. Attachments affect the truck's performance by changing the center of gravity, visibility, and capacity at a given mast height. Potential Hazards:Overloading. The weight of the attachment reduces the lifting capacity of the truck. Tipover and falling loads. The attachment increases the load center by moving the load further away from the balance or fulcrum point.Requirements:Train operators in the fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations. [29 CFR (l)(3)(i)(G)] Retrain an operator if a new attachment is added to the forklift. Consult the operator's manual for instructions on how to use the new equipment.Do not exceed the rated capacity of the forklift/attachment combination. Know the mechanical limitations of your forklift. Change capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals when a forklift truck is equipped with an attachment. Treat an unloaded forklift with an attachment as partially loaded. [29 CFR (o)(4)]Include attachments in a scheduled maintenance and inspection program. Tailor inspection steps to the attachment.Examine load-bearing components for deformation.Visually examine load-bearing welds for cracks.Inspect mechanical or hydraulic components and maintain in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.Request the truck be marked to identify the attachments and show the approximate weight of the truck and attachment combination at maximum elevation with load laterally centered if the truck is equipped with front-end attachments other than factory installed attachments. [29 CFR (a)(5)] If no response or a negative response is received from the manufacturer, written approval of the modification/addition from a qualified registered professional engineer is acceptable. A qualified registered professional engineer must perform a safety analysis and address any safety or structural issues contained in the manufacturer’s negative response before granting approval. The forklift nameplates must be changed accordingly. [See ANSI/ITSDF 56.1, "Safety Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks" Section 4.2, "Modifications, Nameplates, Markings, and Capacity."]See Forklifts: Free Rigging Requires Manufacturer's Approval, OSHA Standard Interpretation, (1999, October 22). Free rigging is the direct attachment to or placement of rigging equipment (slings, shackles, rings, etc.) onto the forks of a powered industrial truck for a below-the-forks lift. This type of lift does not use an approved lifting attachment. Although free rigging is a common practice, it could affect the capacity and safe operation of a powered industrial truck.
33Tipovers IN CASE OF A TIPOVER Don’t Jump – Stay in Forklift 2 types of Tipovers: Forward or Side(Procedure for sit-down counter balance forklift)Don’t Jump – Stay in ForkliftHold tight to steering wheelBrace FeetLean Away from impactLean ForwardProcedures vary for different forklifts
34Understanding the Workplace Understanding the Workplace in ReviewPhysical ConditionsPedestrian TrafficRamps and Grades Loading Docks Narrow Aisles Elevators Enclosed and Hazardous AreasOTHER ITEMS TO CONSIDERFUELINGCHARGINGPROPER PPE
35Training All operators must be certified by the following Retraining Certification includesAll operators must be certified by the followingSpecific Equipment UsedBooks/Videos/LectureHands on trainingEvaluation written & performanceRetrainingEvery 3 yearsUpon accident/unsafe operation notedCertification includesName of operator/training date/evaluation date/instructor