Presentation on theme: "Forklift Safety Today we’ll be discussing Forklift Safety. This training is required by OSHA’s standard on Powered Industrial Vehicles (29 CFR 1910.178)."— Presentation transcript:
1 Forklift SafetyToday we’ll be discussing Forklift Safety. This training is required by OSHA’s standard on Powered Industrial Vehicles (29 CFR ). The purpose of our session is to help you become better and safer operators of your trucks.You’ll learn about:Some of the hazards you face as operators; tips on proper load centering and load capacity aimed at preventing tip-overs.General safe driving procedures and some of the rules of the road specific to our facility.Inspection requirements.Safety tips for refueling or recharging.29 CFRSuggestions for the SpeakerConsider kicking off the session by asking which operator in your audience has the most experience behind the wheel.
2 Authorized Operators Must be trained and certified Must drive only the types of trucks for which they’ve received certificationOSHA requires all lift truck operators to be trained and authorized by their organization before operating a truck.Only trained and authorized operators are permitted to operate a powered industrial vehicle.Operators may only drive the type of truck on which they’ve been trained and certified.Our purpose today is not only to fulfill those OSHA requirements, but to help you make your own jobs safer.Suggestions for the SpeakerReview the specific types of powered industrial vehicles and lift trucks used in your facility.
3 Differences Between Forklifts and Automobiles Often weigh more than a carHave reduced visibilityOften use rear-wheel steeringOperate in a more complex traffic environmentCan ride less smoothly due to tire typesAre more sensitive to shifts in center of gravityForklifts have some obvious differences from automobiles. Those differences aren’t just in appearance. They carry over to how forklifts handle and the procedures you’ll need to follow to stay safe. No matter how well you drive your car and truck out on the streets, it’s a different ballgame when you’re on a lift. Unloaded, a typical forklift weighs about 2,500 pounds versus about 3,000-4,000 pounds for a car. However, add a 2,000 pound load to that lift and you’re actually sitting behind more weight.On a car, you have a clear windshield. On your lift, your visibility is affected by your mast and at times the load you are carrying. If your load fully blocks forward visibility, unlike a car where you could just clean your windshield, you may have no choice but to drive in reverse.Unlike a car, forklifts are steered using the rear wheels, which causes the end of the lift to swing outwards on turns, making it easier for you to collide with things.Plus, you’re likely to have extra hazards when driving lifts that you might not encounter on the open road. You’ll be driving in areas where there are pedestrians as well as other co- workers performing their jobs, not to mention other operators driving their trucks.Sometimes you’ll be driving a lift with tires made of hard rubber - not the pneumatic air- filled tires on your cars and trucks. This causes the ride to be bumpy and can affect load stability. Which brings us to the final difference - stability.While it takes a lot to overturn a car or truck in normal operations, overturning is VERY much more likely when driving a lift. Your center of gravity is much more likely to shift due to the load, speed, and maneuvering.
4 Hazards of Forklift Operation Vehicle OperationsLoad capacityLift HeightLoad stabilityVisibilitySteeringSpeedTurningRefuelingMaintenanceWork EnvironmentFloors/SurfacesPedestriansObstaclesBlind spotsNarrow aislesIntersectionsDocks & trailersYou all want to get home in one piece at the end of the day. No matter how good you are - accidents do happen. We’ll take a look at the leading causes of accidents and fatalities in a second, but remember - knowing the hazards and types of frequent accidents can help prevent you from being involved in one.You face two types of hazards - vehicle operations and the environment.Load capacity, load height, load stability - these all affect the maneuverability of your vehicle. Get careless here and you run the risk of tip-overs or having your loads fall on you or others. Often times your visibility will be diminished by your loads or your masts. Steering, speed, turning - these all can lead to tip-overs.You also face hazards during maintenance and refueling. Batteries contain hazardous acids; propane, gas, and diesel are flammable; and all of these emit hazardous fumes.Your environment is a hazard. You may deal with unsafe surfaces - such as those that are wet or oily, or those that may be bumpy or have debris on them. You may have to cross railroad tracks. Docks and other elevated surfaces present a hazard as well. Add to that the fact that you must constantly deal with pedestrians, obstacles, blind spots, narrow aisles, intersections, other vehicles and trailers. You can see that there are a lot of potential ways for things to go wrong.Warehouse VideoSuggestions for the SpeakerAsk workers to name areas in your facility that may present extra hazards for forklift operators.
5 Lift Truck Accidents & Causes 680,400 accidents and 90,000 injuries each year to workers due to:Tip-overs: 25.3%Hit by forklift: 18.8%Hit by falling load: 14.4%Use of lift as elevator: 12.2%Lift falls off dock: 7%Improper maintenance: 6.1%OSHA estimates that 680,400 accidents involving powered lift trucks occur annually. Of those approximately 90,000 lead to serious employee injuries.The tip-over is the single largest cause of forklift accidents. Most tip-overs result from a combination of risky load stability, overloading, and unsafe driving. We’ll cover ways you can avoid these later in the session.Next comes employees struck by forklifts. You know pedestrians are a constant hazard. Many operators are injured when their load falls on them, most times when it wasn’t properly stacked or the driver did something he shouldn’t have while operating the vehicle, such as taking a corner too fast.Workers get injured when operators attempt to use their forks as elevators for other workers. Drivers also run off of loading docks.Improper maintenance is another leading cause of accidents. That’s why daily inspections are so important and why we don’t want any malfunctioning lifts to be operating.Operators have also been injured by striking materials or obstacles in their vehicle's path, inhaling fumes, having an unchocked trailer move on them or by falling off their lifts.Suggestions for the SpeakerAsk workers to name ways they could get injured while using lift trucks before showing the slide.
6 Causes of Forklift Fatalities Forklift overturned: 24%Struck by falling loads: 17%Struck by other truck: 14%Fall from forklift: 14%Crushed by forklift: 11%Ran off loading dock: 8%Worker making repairs on forklift: 6%There are accidents and then there are deadly accidents. The idea that you could be killed while operating your truck may seem remote now, but the fact of the matter is that men and women die everyday doing your job.A hundred fellow operators didn’t make it off their shifts alive last year. We don’t want you to be one of them this year. How do you die doing something that comes as second nature? You get careless.The number one cause of forklift fatalities is the tip over. This is followed by materials falling on the driver. For both of these, we’ll see why truck capacity and load stability are so important to staying safe.Many drivers have died being thrown or falling out of forklifts. That’s why seatbelts and knowing what to do in the event of a tip-over are so important.Drivers have also been crushed by their own forklifts. For example, they may attempt to grab something in a nearby stack, something slips, and they’re crushed.Running off a loading dock? It happens. We’ll talk later about what you can do to avoid that dangerous situation.Fatalities during repairs shows there are hazards you need to be aware of during refueling and maintenance, which we’ll also cover later.
7 Forklift Safety Stability and center of gravity Load capacity & centeringDriving do’s and don'tsRules of the roadParkingInspectionRefuelingNow that we’ve seen some of the dangers from forklifts, you’re going to see what you can do to avoid them.In the next few minutes we’ll look at the concept of load capacity and load centering, some general do’s and don’ts while driving and other rules of the road. We’ll also look at some of the things you can do to be safe when you’re not on the road such as proper parking, inspection and refueling procedures.We’ll take a look at the concept of loads first.
8 The Stability Triangle Support points A, B & C form stability triangleCenter of gravity is the point at which load is concentratedIf center of gravity remains inside the triangle, the truck won’t tipBy now, you’ve seen how serious the problem of tip-overs can be. Understanding how to avoid tip-overs starts by understanding how the truck and the load interact to provide a stable center of gravity.For starters, imagine a see-saw. The point in the middle is called the fulcrum. Put equal weight on both sides, and the see-saw is balanced. Put more weight on one side and its becomes unbalanced. This same concept applies to understanding when a forklift is stable and when it isn’t.On the slide, we have an illustration of a forklift with a load. The triangle formed before points A, B and C is known as the stability triangle. In a way, your front tires are like the fulcrum on the see-saw. The center of gravity is the point within the truck where the weight of the truck and the weight of the load are concentrated. As long as the center of gravity remains inside the stability triangle, the truck won’t tip over.So what causes you to lose the center of gravity and tip over? The placement of the load, the height of the load, cornering or turning, operating on inclines.Suggestions for the SpeakerIf available, consider bringing a scale model of a truck to class to better clarify this and the following concepts.
9 Load Capacity Check name plate Don’t exceed maximum: Load centerLift heightChanging the load center changes the load capacityAs we’ve seen, the truck’s front wheels are like the fulcrum point between the truck and the load you’re carrying. If the weight of the load is greater than the weight of the truck, it’s possible to see-saw a truck and lift it off its front wheels, even when stationery, let alone while driving. So you must know the capabilities of your vehicle and not exceed them.You can find information on you truck’s capabilities on the data plate. This will contain its rated load capacity in pounds, load center in inches, and maximum lift height in inches.There are a few key concepts about your truck you need to know to understand safe load capacity. The load center is the point at which the center of gravity of the load itself is concentrated on your forks.Maximum lift height is the highest height the load within the rated load capacity and the load center can be raised.Rated load capacity is the maximum weight you can lift for your rated load center. For example, a truck with a load capacity of 6,000 pounds and a load center of 24 inches can lift 6,000 pounds as long as the load center remains 24 inches from the back forks.But be aware that if you rearrange the load so that the load’s center of gravity is further away from the front wheels or if you are carrying a longer load, this shifts the center of gravity on your truck forward, possibly outside of your stability triangle, putting you at risk for a tip over.So even though the nameplate may give a load capacity, the amount you can safely carry is reduced the further away the load’s center of gravity is from your front wheels. In general, for each inch forward the load center shifts, you lose roughly 100 pounds of safe load capacity.
10 Load Centering & Positioning Place heaviest load against back of forksEnsure loads are neatly stacked, stable, evenly distributed and securePlace forks under the load as far as possibleAdjust forks to widest possible settingTilt forks back for added stabilityAs a general rule, always place the heaviest load against the back of your forks. This shifts the load center closer to the front tires and helps keep your center of gravity within the stability triangle while operating.Before picking up a load, make sure the load is neatly stacked and arranged. If the loads have some loose materials that look like they could come off while traveling, make sure to secure them. It only takes a minute, and that minute is well spent if it means a co-worker won’t get clobbered with a barrel or box that’s tumbling down the aisle.When you are picking up a load, remember to place your forks under the load as far as possible.For maximum safety, always adjust your forks outward as far as possible. This helps center your load and makes it more stable. If you do have to drive with an off-center load, exercise extreme caution. Go extra slow on turns.When carrying a load, tilt your forks back slightly. Again, this shifts the load center further towards the front wheels. Never tilt the forks forward expect when you are depositing a load over a rack or stack.Suggestions for the SpeakerNow would be a good time to review the typical types of loads your workers will be carrying. Are there any types where your workers have had problem in the past?
11 Safe Driving Match speed to load and conditions Safe driving Decrease speed at all corners and sound hornWatch for pedestrians and obey posted traffic signsSafe drivingKeep forks as low as possible; don’t drive with load raisedPosition forks to tilt back slightlyIf view is blocked, travel in reverseWatch for overhead obstructionsNow that you have your load, we’ll turn to driving. Some of these are no-brainers, but it’s easy to be confident and sometimes confidence leads to carelessness and that’s what leads to accidents and injuries.Speed is a critical factor. Watch your speed and keep it slow and safe. Better to get your load there in one piece than have an accident. Always drive at a speed at which you can stop safely. When you come to a corner or intersection, slow down and beep your horn. Keep on the lookout for pedestrians. Remember, you’re the one carrying 2 tons - not them. Always look for posted traffic signs.When you’re driving, keep your forks as low as possible. If you drive with the load raised, it can fall on a sudden stop or turn. Plus, traveling through a turn with a raised load increases the chances of a tip over. It’s also a good idea to drive with your forks slightly tilted back to increase load stability.If your view is blocked by your load, travel in reverse. Don’t poke your head out the side and drive that way; you’re not dogs. Be on the lookout for overhead obstructions and make sure you have clearance above and to the sides. The last thing you want is your load falling onto you or one of your co-workers.Suggestions for the SpeakerReview any specific procedures for intersections, interactions with pedestrians, at your facility. Ask workers to name any areas of special concern or areas with posted speed limits or other restrictions.Now would also be a good time to review those locations at your facility that have in the past proved particularly hazardous to operators and co-workers.
12 Other Rules of the Road No passengers No lifting people Use your seat beltKeep hands and feet inside of truckNo standing under forks when raisedIf following, maintain 3 length distanceNo passing at intersectionsHere are some other general rules of the road you need to know.No passengers - ever. You are not a taxi service. Neither are you an elevator. Never let anyone stand on your forks and have you lift them. That’s what ladders are for. If personnel have to be lifted, you need to first install a safety platform. Check with your supervisor for instructions.Use your seat belt. Just like a car.Keep your hands and feet inside the truck at all times. Don’t let them hang outside the running lines of the truck. Also, do not place your arms or legs between the uprights of the mast.Don’t let anyone stand under the forks when they are raised, regardless of whether they’re loaded or empty.If you are following another vehicle or forklift, always maintain at least a 3 truck length distance. You may have control of your vehicle, but there is no telling what the operator ahead of you may be about to do. The operator may make a sudden stop or turn. Also, don’t pass other trucks traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots or other dangerous locations.Suggestions for the SpeakerIf lifts at your facility can be used with a safety platform attachment for the purpose of lifting personnel, take time to review the proper operation of this attachment. Include who to notify in the event use is needed.
13 Ramps and Inclines If empty: If loaded: Drive in reverse up the inclineDrive forward down the inclineIf loaded:Drive forward up the inclineDrive in reverse down the inclineDriving on ramps and inclines causes your center of gravity to shift, putting you at risk of losing your load or even tipping over. There are some very simple rules you should always follow to stay safe when driving on ramps or inclines.If your forks are empty, when you are going up an incline, drive in reverse; when you are going down an incline, drive forward.If you are carrying a load, it’s the opposite. Travel forward up an incline. This will cause the load weight to shift back against your forks, providing for greater stability. When you’re traveling down an incline with a load, drive in reverse. Again, this keeps the load weight shifted back against your forks.Never, under any circumstances, travel forward down an incline while carrying a load. Never, under any circumstances, travel up a ramp in reverse while carrying a load.Suggestions for the SpeakerNow would be a good time to talk about areas in your facility where workers may encounter inclines.
14 Driving on Problem Surfaces Be aware of: oil spots, wet spots, loose object or holesAvoid if possible: ice, mud, gravel, sand and soft dirtMake sure area can support the weight of the truck and the loadYou may sometimes find yourself faced with problem surfaces that can put you at risk for an accident.Always be on the lookout for oil spots, wet spots, loose objects or holes. If a surface looks slick, try to avoid it by going around it. If it can’t be avoided, proceed through it very cautiously. That means driving safer and slower than normal. Also check your tires when through.If possible, try to avoid driving on ice, mud, gravel, sand and soft dirt. Again, if you can’t avoid these surfaces, drive slowly.If you are in unfamiliar terrain, always be sure that the area can support the weight of the truck and the load. Walk through it first. You do not want to have to dig yourself out of soft dirt or mud.Suggestions for the SpeakerReview any areas in your facility where drivers may encounter unpaved surfaces or other areas where a heightened degree of operator care is needed.
15 Loading Docks & Trailers Be aware of the edges of loading docksSet brakes on trucks/trailers and chock wheelsInspect interiorsEnsure that dock plate & interior surfaces can support weightWatch clearanceYou’ll need to use extra caution around loading docks, trailers, and railcars. Remember, a leading cause of accidents and deaths were from operators driving off of loading docks.Always know where the edge of the loading dock is and maintain a safe distance. Use caution and give yourself plenty of room. This goes for ramps, platforms or any time you're driving on an elevated surface.Before loading and unloading a truck, trailer or railcar, make sure the dock plates are fastened securely and that they can support your forklift both empty and fully loaded.When unloading a trailer or truck, make sure its brakes are set and its wheels have been choked.Before going into a truck, trailer, or railcar inspect the interior. Make sure it’s clear of obstacles on the floor - no broken glass, beams, etc. At this time make sure the interior surface can support the weight of the forklift as well. Check for any weakness or breaks in the flooring.As always, check the clearance before driving in and driving out.Suggestions for the SpeakerNow would be a good time to review any specific procedures for loading docks, railcars and trailers in your facility.
16 Parking Set forks flat on floor Place controls in neutral Shut off enginesSet brakesBlock wheels if on an inclineDo not block emergency areasWhen you leave your vehicle, you don’t leave behind your responsibility. You are responsible for your truck at all times.To safely park the truck, set forks flat on the floor. Never leave a truck with raised forks, especially when you’re carrying a load.Place controls in neutral, shut off the engine and set the brakes. If you’re on an incline, make sure to block your wheels.Remember, do not block emergency areas.Follow these procedures whenever you leave the truck even for a few minutes. But “what if I can see the truck?” you may ask. Even if you can, OSHA says that if you are more than 25 feet away from your truck, it’s “unattended” and these safe parking procedures should be followed.Suggestions for the SpeakerNow would be a good time to point out any areas where forklifts shouldn’t be parked at your facility. Be sure to name all emergency zones.
17 If a Tip Over Occurs Don’t jump Stay in your seat Grip wheel securely Brace yourself with your feetGo with the truckNo matter how well-prepared and cautious you may be, accidents do happen. If you are in a situation where your truck is in the process of tipping over, you can help minimize or eliminate serious injury by following certain procedures.Don’t jump. Although this may be your first instinct, studies have shown you are actually safer going with the truck. Jumping from the truck puts you at risk of being crushed underneath the truck or possibly by the load. So, go with the truck. How?Grip the wheel securely, brace yourself with your feet against the floorboards or dash, and hang on.
18 Attachments Operate as if partially loaded May shift load center Be trained on specific attachmentsFrom time to time, your may use attachments on your forklifts. For example, drum clamps or personnel platforms.The attachments will increase the weight of your truck. So when you’re using one, operate the truck as if it is partially loaded even when you’re not carrying a load. Take into account how these attachments can shift your load center and reduce your lift capacity. Remember to make sure the center of gravity is within your stability triangle before you take on a load.Remember, you must be trained on the specific attachments you are using on your lift.Suggestions for the SpeakerReview the most common attachments used by your operators. You may wish to briefly include specific operating procedures for these as an additional slide.Tell operators where/when additional training on these attachments is offered at your facility.
19 Pre-Operation Inspection: Visual Circle Check HydraulicsUprightsForksAttachmentsLeaksTires/wheelsReport problems to TransportationAnother way to ensure your own safety is to make sure your equipment is in good working order. OSHA estimates that 6% of accidents are caused by poor maintenance. You’ll need to inspect your truck or lift before you begin operation and after you complete your shift. No forklift that is out of order should ever be driven on the job.Start with a visual circle check of your truck. Simply walk around it and make sure everything is in good working order. What are you looking for?Look for broken, warped or worn parts in the chains, hydraulic cylinder, mast/uprights or forks. The same goes for any attachments you may have.Visually examine the hoses and connections. Make sure they are in good condition and also check for leaks around fittings and connection points.For tires, look for damage, wear, missing bolts or other signs that the tire is not in good condition.If you have a problem, don’t drive. Notify your supervisor.Suggestions for the SpeakerReview any inspection procedure specific to the types of vehicles you are operating. Refer to the manufacturer-provided owner’s manual if necessary.Review specific procedures for reporting problems found during inspections.
20 Pre-Operation Inspection: In-seat check BrakesSteeringControlsLights & signalsEngineHornFluid levelsBatteryHour meterAfter you do your walk around, do an in-seat inspection before you move the truck.Test you brakes. They should depress smoothly without sticking, but shouldn’t continue to sink under continued pressure. Don’t forget to check your parking brake as well.Check the steering for action and freeplay. The freeplay should not be more than 2 inches to either side.Control levers should move smoothly and return to neutral when released. The forks themselves should not slip or move after they’re placed in a new position.Test your signals (if applicable) as well as your lights.Listen for any unusual noises in your engine.Honk your horn and test any reverse warning mechanisms you might have.Check your controls for the proper fluid readings as well as battery power.Your hour meter will designate when periodic maintenance is due. Be sure to be aware of your readings.Make sure your seat belt works properly.Report problems to Transportation.Suggestions for the SpeakerIf you have a checklist for daily inspection, review this now. It might be a good idea to pass this out.In addition, if your operators are required to submit daily reports, now would be a good time to go over them and give instructions for completion including who to submit it to.Make sure operators know who to contact in case of vehicle malfunction.Review schedules for periodic maintenance of trucks.
21 Refueling or Recharging Park in designated recharging/refueling areaEnsure adequate ventilationDon’t smokeNo open flames, sparks, or electric arcs nearbyHave fire extinguisher nearbyUse proper personal protective equipmentAlways check lines, wires, hoses for leaksRefueling and recharging can be hazardous, no matter how many times you’ve done it. These rules apply no matter what type of vehicle you are operating.Start by parking only in those areas designated for recharging or refueling. Don’t block doorways for emergency paths.Ensure you have adequate ventilation. It’s entirely possible to be overcome by fumes from gasoline, diesel, propane or battery acid.Never smoke while refueling/recharging and make sure there are no open flames, sparks or electric arcs nearby.Know where your fire extinguishers are located, in case of an emergency.Wear proper personal protective equipment. For example, gloves and an apron if you’re changing a battery or gloves when handling an L.P. tank.While you’re refueling or recharging, take the opportunity to check all of your lines, wires and hoses for leaks.Suggestions for the SpeakerProvide any facility-specific or vehicle-specific instructions.
22 Refueling Gas or Diesel Trucks Turn off ignition and lightsMake contact between spout and fill pipe before pouringIf a container must be used, make sure it is an approved containerCheck for leaksClean up any spillsTo refuel a gas or diesel truck, start by turning off your ignition and lights. Never tank up while the engine is still running.Make sure the spout is all the way into the spill pipe before pumping. Take your time; you’re not in a pit crew. Any spills could turn into fire or slip and fall hazards.While refueling, this may be a good time to check for leaks..Try to avoid spillage as much as possible. If fuel does spill, wash it away or let it completely evaporate before starting the engine again.If you run out of fuel and need to carry it to the vehicle’s location, make sure whatever container you used is approved for carrying gasoline/diesel.Suggestions for the SpeakerThis slide may be omitted if your workers do not use gas or diesel trucks.Now would be a good time to review any gas or diesel procedures unique to your facility.Make sure operators know the location of approved containers for carrying fuel.
23 Refueling Liquid Propane Trucks Shut valve; let engine run until it stallsTurn off ignition and lightsCheck for leaks and damage to connectionsWear protective clothingRemove empty tank and store itInstall new tank securelyIf you are refueling liquid propane tanks, start by shutting off the valve. The engine should stall on its own. After it stalls out, turn off the ignition and any lights still running.This is always a good opportunity to check for any leaks or damage to connections.Sometimes the tank may be extremely cold. Make sure to wear gloves when handling L.P. tanks to insulate your hands from direct contact.Remove the empty tank and store it in the designated area.Then install a new tank. When you do, double check that all of your connections are secure and that there are no leaks.Suggestions for the SpeakerThis slide may be omitted if your workers do not use L.P.-powered trucks.Include any site-specific or vehicle-specific instructions. You may wish to consult your owners manual for detailed instructions and procedures involving installing new tanks or refueling.Make sure operators know the proper procedure for the temporary storage of empty tanks.
24 Summary Ensure load stability to prevent tip-overs Follow the rules of the roadUse extra caution with special situationsInspect vehicles and report any problemsUse care when refueling/rechargingWe’ll close by recapping the big-takeaways from today’s session.The way to prevent tip-overs is to be aware of how the load and various driving conditions can shift your center of gravity and affect you stability. Start with a stable load - within the rated load capacity, neatly stacked, heaviest loads against backs of forks, and forks spread wide.Then follow the rules of the road. Most important, when driving, decrease speed at all corners and sound horn. Obey traffic signs, watch for pedestrians and overhead hazards, and keep your hands and feet inside the vehicle frame.Be aware of special situations requiring extra caution such as when you’re driving on inclines, problem surfaces, railroad tracks, loading docks and trailers or railcars.Take the time to inspect your trucks before and after operation. Never operate a vehicle that can’t pass muster.Use special caution when recharging or refueling. Always use PPE, make sure there are no sources of ignition in the area, and clean up any spilled materials.Suggestions for the SpeakerConsider opening the floor for questions on any aspect of this session.Use the quiz accompanying this presentation to test workers’ understanding and retention of the material presented.