Presentation on theme: "Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC"— Presentation transcript:
1 Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC 296-24-230 From WAC , Part DMaterials Handling and Storage, Including Cranes, Derricks, Etc., and Rigging
2 ObjectivesEmployers should be able to determine if their Powered Industrial Truck operator training program complies with the new standard’s requirements forTruck-Related TopicsWorkplace-Related TopicsDocumentation of Training
3 Changes “Clear Rule Writing” Operator Training Requirements Non-Mandatory GuidelinesOperator RestraintsWRD On Order Pickers IncludedUpdated National Consensus StandardsOtherGlycol no longer specified as the only antifreeze agentOther Industry standards affected
4 What Is A “Powered Industrial Truck”? “A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack, or tier materials. Powered industrial trucks are also commonly known as forklifts, pallet trucks, rider trucks, forktrucks, or lifttrucks.”[per American Society of Mechanical Engineers -- ASME]
5 Which Of These Does the New Standard Require Operators To Be Trained On?
12 “Turning technique no longer specified” The Old Way - The New Way“Turning technique no longer specified”“While negotiating turns, speed shall be reduced to a safe level, by means of turning the hand steering wheel in a smooth, sweeping motion. Except when maneuvering at a very low speed, the hand steering wheel shall be turned at a moderate, even rate.”“While negotiating turns, speed must be reduced to a safe level.”
13 Operator Training Mandatory portion: WAC 296-24-23025 Non-Mandatory Appendix: WAC
14 Mandatory: -296-24-23025 - Operator Training Safe Operation Training program implementationTraining program contentRefresher training and evaluationAvoidance of duplicative trainingDocumentationEffective dateThe Mandatory portions of – are the legal requirements, like every other WISHA standard. The non-mandatory appendix (modeled after OSHA’s) provides explanations and models to help operators understand and appreciate the principles of physics which make Powered Industrial Trucks (PITs) particularly hazardous.
15 The Other Part of Operator Training Non-Mandatory Appendix: (para )DefinitionsGeneralBasic PrinciplesThe Stability TriangleLongitudinal StabilityLateral StabilityDynamic Stability
16 Effective Date March 1, 2000Employer must ensure operators are trained, as appropriate, by the effective date of this section.Employees hired on or after the effective date of this section must be trained and evaluated prior to being assigned to operate a powered industrial truck.-No WISHA Special Emphasis Program is anticipated at this time.
17 Other Industry Standards Affected WAC Longshore, Stevedore and Related WaterfrontWAC ConstructionWAC Agriculture
18 WHY?Since a large percentage of accidents and fatalities were due to operator inexperience, OSHA mandated that operators must be trained and competent.
21 Overview of Requirements Employers must ensure operators are:TrainedCompetentDocumentedNote: WISHA uses the term “Documented”. The word “Certified” is not used in the WISHA standard to avoid implying that the employers must hire or contract out training.1) Must have completed a structured formal training programinitialrefresher every 3 years or as required2) Combination offormalpracticalevaluation in workplace3) Trainers must have the knowledge, training and experience to train and evaluate operators.4) Operators must be evaluated in workplace and must continue to perform safely.
22 Training Program Implementation (a) Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:(i) under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and(ii) Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees
23 Training must consist of a combination of: 1. Formal Instruction2. Practical Training3. Evaluation
24 Practical Training Practical Exercise by Student Instructor or designee DemonstrationExample
26 Training Program Content WAC (3“… operators must receive initial training in the topics that follow, except in topics that the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation of the truck in the employer’s workplace.”(a) Truck-related topics(b) Workplace-related topics
27 Training Program Content Truck-related topicsGeneral principlesSpecific to typeSpecific to forks or attachments
28 Overview of Truck-Related Topics General principles“Must receive” from (3)(a):Operation instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized operate;Differences between the truck and the automobileTruck controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and how they workEngine or motor operationSteering & maneuvering
29 Overview of Truck-Related Topics - Continued VisibilityFork and attachment adaptation, operation and use limitationsVehicle capacityVehicle stabilityOperator-performed inspection & maintenanceRefueling and/or battery chargingOperation limitationsAny other operation instructions, warning, or precautions
30 Overview of Truck-Related Topics - Continued General principles“Must receive” from (3)(a)Non-mandatory appendix atDefinitions related to stabilityBasic principlesThe Stability TriangleLongitudinal StabilityLateral StabilityDynamic Stability
31 Truck-Related Topics What each covers: For Example:“Must receive” from WAC (3)(a)Fork and attachment adaptation, operation and use limitationsNon-mandatory appendixHow fork and attachment adaptations change the forklift’s steering characteristics and stability
32 Truck-Related Topics “Must receive” from WAC296-24-23025(3)(a): Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized to operateGeneral instructions for forkliftsGeneral safety itemsListed in the operator’s manual
35 Truck-Related Topics Differences between the truck and automobile Suggested contents in non-mandatory appendix:Rear wheel steeringRear of truck swings out on turnsTruck has triangular stability, not four-pointTruck may have smaller size, but can have six times the weight!
40 Truck-Related TopicsVisibility (including restrictions due to loading)
41 Truck-Related Topics Other items requiring training: other attachments carton grabbersbarrel grabbersbarrel grabbers which rotate
42 Truck-Related Topics Changes in attachments different capabilities of attachment:e.g. from single reach to double reach order pickerchanges in operator controlshow change in attachment affects capacityhow change in attachment affects stability
43 Truck-Related TopicsSpecific to forks or attachments
44 Truck-Related Topics Specific to forks or attachments Another example from Operator’s Manual
45 Truck-Related TopicsSpecific to forks or attachments
46 Truck-Related Topics Vehicle capability includes manufacturer’s plate includes charts indicating de-rating at mast height, etc
47 The “Quick Check”on what the operator knows: Truck-related topicsCan read and explain entries on the name plate
48 The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows: An older kind of plate:
49 The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows: Again: Can they read and interpret?
50 The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows: Truck-related topicsCan read and explain entries on the name plateCan locate, explain & interpret specification charts on capacity
51 Truck-Related Topics Vehicle stability Non-mandatory appendix: containsdiagrams to explain the concept.Other diagrams in OSHA training program,on the Internet:
52 Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks Non-mandatory Appendix(1) Definitions to help explain the principle of stability(2) General principles of stability(3) Basic principles - the “physics” of stability; momentum, inertia, gravity(4) The Stability Triangle
53 Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks The Stability Triangle(5) Longitudinal Stability(6) Lateral Stability
54 Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks The Stability Triangle(5) Longitudinal Stability(6) Lateral StabilityLoad CGLoad CGVerticalStabilityLine(Line of Action)Combined CGCombined CGVerticalStabilityLine(Line of Action)Truck CGTruck CGThis vehicle is unstable andwill continue to tip overThe vehicle is stable
55 Truck-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (a) “Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform.”Should be conducted per manufacturer’s specs:Vehicle conditionCondition and thickness of forksCondition of hoses, mast chains, hydraulic ramsEffectiveness of parking brakeTire inflationAll other listed inspection points5 year inspection data: 0f 813 citations from , 205 of them (that’s about 25%!) relate to PIT’s being used when unsafe conditions exist -- trucks defective, trucks needing repairs but not taken out of service, etc.
63 Example from OSHA: osha-slc.gov/Training/PIT/pit_checklist.html DAILY INSPECTION CHECKLISTElectric Forklift TruckKEY OFF Procedures•Overhead guard •Hydraulic cylinders •Mast assembly •Lift chains and rollers •Forks •Tires•Examine the battery •Check the hydraulic fluid levelKEY ON Procedures•Check the gauges•Hour meter •Battery discharge indicator•Test the standard equipment•Steering •Brakes •Front, tail, and brake lights •Horn•Safety seat (if equipped)•Check the operation of load-handling attachments
64 Truck-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (a) Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteriesLP bottlesBattery charging facilities
65 Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (a) Ramps and other sloped surfacesDock boardsBridge plates
66 Truck-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (a) “Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator’s manual for the types of vehicle that the employee is being trained to operate”
67 Training Program Content Truck-related topics: (3) (a)Workplace-related topics(3) (b)
68 Overview of Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b) Surface conditionsComposition of loadsLoad manipulationPedestrian trafficNarrow aisles and other restricted placesHazardous locationsRamps & other sloped surfacesPotential carbon monoxide hazard locationsOther unique or potentially hazardous conditions-Mandatory Requirement-During this presentation, I will occasionally be making references to the non-mandatory appendix (WAC ) for additional information.
69 Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b) Surface conditions:Type(s) of normal driving surfacePerformance of truck’s tires on normal surfaceSurface conditions which may be encounteredWater, snow, iceEffects on traction, stopping abilityUneven ground and/or potholesEffects on stabilityGravel
70 Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b) Composition of loads to be carriedExamples, from Non-mandatory appendix :Irregular shaped loads and/or protrusionsChanges to Center Of GravityPartially filled containers of liquid
71 Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b) Load manipulation, stacking and unstackingFor example:Reducing damage to powered industrial truckAvoiding stresses to forks from overloadWelds on forksDetection of broken or defective pallets, or pallets with improper repairs
72 Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b) Pedestrian traffic in areas where vehicle will be operated
73 Importance of training on pedestrian traffic: **Important reminder that the driver is always the one responsible; never the pedestrian!
74 Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b) Narrow aislesOther restricted places; per existing paragraph (7)including the inside of semi-truck trailersincluding the inside of railroad cars
75 Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b) - Hazardous (classified) locations Ref: for 11 different designations of powered industrial truck appropriate to locations with explosive/combustible atmospheres
77 Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b) “Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions…”Per BLS data: 8% of all fatalities involving forklifts are from “driving off loading dock”
78 General Workplace Safety Item: One of the most common, yet most hazardous, practices is having people riding on the forks!!This should be addressed in all training programs
80 Refresher Training To Begin with: WAC (4)To Begin with:(4)(C) An evaluation of each operator’s performance must be conducted at least once every three years…..to determine if they require refresher training.
81 Refresher Training and is evaluated and found competent, If the operator received all required trainingtruck-relatedworkplace-relatedand is evaluated and found competent,no refresher training is required
82 Refresher Training Is Required When the operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe mannerHow do you know?Incident reportsSafety committee minutesMaintenance reportsEquipment damage“Shipping damage”Employee complaints
83 Refresher Training Is Required The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident require additional training.documented accidents which don’t have corresponding documentation of refresher training and evaluation are asking for trouble!
84 “Quick Check” On Performance of Refresher Training: - What mechanism does the company have in place for:Maintenance to report driver-caused damage?Anyone to report a “near miss”?
85 “Quick Check” On Performance of Refresher Training: Bent supportDoes the supervisor know who caused the damage?Was follow-up evaluation and/or training documented?
86 Refresher Training Is Required Operator has received an evaluation that reveals the operator is not operating the truck safely.Evaluation must be documented.
87 Refresher Training Is Required When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:Are there differences?Are they significant?
88 Refresher Training Is Required When a condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the truck.OperationsProducts/packagingConstruction/remodelingHundreds of other variablesMust be documented.
89 Avoidance of Duplicative Training WAC 296-24-23025(5) If an operator has previously received training in a topic specified in (3) of this section, and such training is appropriate to the truck and working conditions encountered, additional training in that topic is not required if the operator has been evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely, within three years.
90 Required Documentation WAC (6)Operator’s nameDate of trainingDate of evaluationIdentity of trainer/evaluatorStrongly recommended: outline of topics - both truck-specific and workplace-specific
91 Operator Restraints WAC 296-24-23027 Powered industrial truck operations Rule of thumb: Any sit down model of powered industrial truck manufactured since 1993 is required to have an operator restraint provided by the manufacturer.
92 (15) An active operator protection restraint device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.
93 Older Models We don’t require retrofit of operator restraints But once they’ve been added they must be maintained and used
102 Components of a Forklift Truck* *One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks
103 Classes of Commonly-Used Powered Industrial Trucks* The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered industrial trucks into 7 classes.Class I - Electric motor rider trucksClass II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucksClass III - Electric motor hand trucks or hand/rider trucksClass IV - Internal combustion engine trucks (solid/cushion tires)Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks (pneumatic tires)Class VI - Electric and internal combustion engine tractorsClass VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks* Note that this classification refers to commonly-used vehicles and does not include all powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard.
104 Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks Counterbalanced rider type, stand upThree wheel electric trucks, sit-downCounterbalanced rider type, cushion tires, sit-down (high and low platform)Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic tire, sit-down (high and low platform)
105 Refresher Training Is Required When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:
106 Refresher Training Is Required When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:Are there differences?Are they significant?
108 Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks Counterbalanced Rider Type, Stand-Up
109 Truck Classifications Specific to typeType I: Sit-down rider, electric
110 Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks High lift straddleOrder pickerReach type outriggerSide loaders, turret trucks, swing mast and convertible turret/stock pickersLow lift pallet and platform (rider)