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1 Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC 296-24-230 From WAC 296-24, Part D Materials Handling and Storage, Including Cranes, Derricks, Etc.,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC 296-24-230 From WAC 296-24, Part D Materials Handling and Storage, Including Cranes, Derricks, Etc.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC From WAC , Part D Materials Handling and Storage, Including Cranes, Derricks, Etc., and Rigging

2 2 Employers should be able to determine if their Powered Industrial Truck operator training program complies with the new standard’s requirements for – Truck-Related Topics – Workplace-Related Topics – Documentation of Training

3 3 “Clear Rule Writing” Operator Training – Requirements – Non-Mandatory Guidelines Operator Restraints WRD On Order Pickers Included Updated National Consensus Standards Other – Glycol no longer specified as the only antifreeze agent Other Industry standards affected

4 4 What Is A “Powered Industrial Truck”? “A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack, or tier materials. Powered industrial trucks are also commonly known as forklifts, pallet trucks, rider trucks, forktrucks, or lifttrucks.” [per American Society of Mechanical Engineers -- ASME]

5 5 Which Of These Does the New Standard Require Operators To Be Trained On?

6 6 Is This A “Powered Industrial Truck”

7 7

8 8

9 9

10 10 Is This A “Powered Industrial Truck”

11 11

12 12 “Turning technique no longer specified” “While negotiating turns, speed shall be reduced to a safe level, by means of turning the hand steering wheel in a smooth, sweeping motion. Except when maneuvering at a very low speed, the hand steering wheel shall be turned at a moderate, even rate.” “While negotiating turns, speed must be reduced to a safe level.” The Old Way - The New Way

13 13 Operator Training Mandatory portion: WAC Non-Mandatory Appendix: WAC

14 14 Mandatory: Operator Training Safe Operation Training program implementation Training program content Refresher training and evaluation Avoidance of duplicative training Documentation Effective date

15 15 The Other Part of Operator Training Non-Mandatory Appendix: (para ) Definitions General Basic Principles The Stability Triangle Longitudinal Stability Lateral Stability Dynamic Stability

16 16 Effective Date March 1, 2000 Employer must ensure operators are trained, as appropriate, by the effective date of this section. Employees hired on or after the effective date of this section must be trained and evaluated prior to being assigned to operate a powered industrial truck.

17 17 Other Industry Standards Affected WAC Longshore, Stevedore and Related Waterfront WAC Construction WAC Agriculture

18 18 Since a large percentage of accidents and fatalities were due to operator inexperience, OSHA mandated that operators must be trained and competent.

19 19 Forklift Fatalities By Percentages

20 20 Forklift Accidents By Percentage

21 21 Overview of Requirements Employers must ensure operators are: Trained Competent Documented

22 22 Training Program Implementation (a) Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only: –(i) under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and –(ii) Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees (2)(a)

23 23 Training must consist of a combination of: 1. Formal Instruction 2. Practical Training 3. Evaluation (2)(b)

24 24 Practical Training Instructor or designee Demonstration Practical Exercise by Student

25 25

26 26 Training Program Content “… operators must receive initial training in the topics that follow, except in topics that the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation of the truck in the employer’s workplace.” (a) Truck-related topics (b) Workplace-related topics WAC (3

27 27 Truck-related topics General principles Specific to type Specific to forks or attachments

28 28 Overview of Truck-Related Topics General principles “Must receive” from (3)(a): Operation instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized operate; Differences between the truck and the automobile Truck controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and how they work Engine or motor operation Steering & maneuvering

29 29 Overview of Truck-Related Topics - Continued  Visibility  Fork and attachment adaptation, operation and use limitations  Vehicle capacity  Vehicle stability  Operator-performed inspection & maintenance  Refueling and/or battery charging  Operation limitations  Any other operation instructions, warning, or precautions (3)(a)

30 30 Overview of Truck-Related Topics - Continued General principles “Must receive” from (3)(a) Non-mandatory appendix at –Definitions related to stability –Basic principles –The Stability Triangle –Longitudinal Stability –Lateral Stability –Dynamic Stability

31 31 Truck-Related Topics What each covers: “Must receive” from WAC (3)(a) – Fork and attachment adaptation, operation and use limitations Non-mandatory appendix – How fork and attachment adaptations change the forklift’s steering characteristics and stability

32 32 Truck-Related Topics “Must receive” from WAC (3)(a): – Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized to operate General instructions for forklifts General safety items Listed in the operator’s manual

33 33 Example from an Operator’s Manual

34 34 Another Example from an Operator’s Manual

35 35 Truck-Related Topics Differences between the truck and automobile – Suggested contents in non-mandatory appendix: Rear wheel steering – Rear of truck swings out on turns – Truck has triangular stability, not four-point Truck may have smaller size, but can have six times the weight!

36 36

37 37 Truck-Related Topics Truck controls and instrumentation – where they are located –what they do –how they work

38 38 Truck-Related Topics Engine or motor operation

39 39 Truck-Related Topics Steering and maneuvering

40 40 Truck-Related Topics Visibility (including restrictions due to loading)

41 41 Truck-Related Topics Other items requiring training: – other attachments carton grabbers barrel grabbers barrel grabbers which rotate

42 42 Truck-Related Topics Changes in attachments – different capabilities of attachment: e.g. from single reach to double reach order picker –changes in operator controls –how change in attachment affects capacity – how change in attachment affects stability

43 43 Truck-Related Topics Specific to forks or attachments

44 44 Truck-Related Topics Specific to forks or attachments Another example from Operator’s Manual

45 45 Truck-Related Topics Specific to forks or attachments

46 46 Truck-Related Topics Vehicle capability – includes manufacturer’s plate – includes charts indicating de-rating at mast height, etc

47 47 Truck-related topics Can read and explain entries on the name plate The “Quick Check”on what the operator knows:

48 48 An older kind of plate: The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows:

49 49 Again: Can they read and interpret? The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows:

50 50 Truck-related topics Can read and explain entries on the name plate Can locate, explain & interpret specification charts on capacity The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows:

51 51 Truck-Related Topics Vehicle stability Non-mandatory appendix: contains diagrams to explain the concept. Other diagrams in OSHA training program, on the Internet:

52 52 Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks (1) Definitions to help explain the principle of stability (2) General principles of stability (3) Basic principles - the “physics” of stability; momentum, inertia, gravity (4) The Stability Triangle Non-mandatory Appendix

53 53 Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks The Stability Triangle – (5) Longitudinal Stability – (6) Lateral Stability

54 Load CG Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action) Combined CG Truck CG Load CG Combined CG Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action) Truck CG The vehicle is stable This vehicle is unstable and will continue to tip over Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks The Stability Triangle (5) Longitudinal Stability (6) Lateral Stability

55 55 Truck-Related Topics (3) (a) “Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform.” – Should be conducted per manufacturer’s specs: Vehicle condition Condition and thickness of forks Condition of hoses, mast chains, hydraulic rams Effectiveness of parking brake Tire inflation All other listed inspection points

56 56 Example: In the simplest form….

57 57 Another example:

58 58 And another example...

59 59 Example

60 60.. To some very specific, detailed items.

61 61 Example

62 62 Example

63 63 Example from OSHA: osha-slc.gov/Training/PIT/pit_checklist.html DAILY INSPECTION CHECKLIST Electric Forklift Truck KEY OFF Procedures Overhead guard Hydraulic cylinders Mast assembly Lift chains and rollers Forks Tires Examine the battery Check the hydraulic fluid level KEY ON Procedures Check the gauges Hour meter Battery discharge indicator Test the standard equipment Steering Brakes Front, tail, and brake lights Horn Safety seat (if equipped) Check the operation of load-handling attachments

64 64 Truck-Related Topics (3) (a) Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries – LP bottles – Battery charging facilities

65 65 Workplace-Related Topics (3) (a) Ramps and other sloped surfaces Dock boards Bridge plates

66 66 Truck-Related Topics (3) (a) “Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator’s manual for the types of vehicle that the employee is being trained to operate”

67 67 Training Program Content Truck-related topics: (3) (a) Workplace-related topics (3) (b)

68 68 Overview of Workplace-Related Topics (3) (b) Surface conditions Composition of loads Load manipulation Pedestrian traffic Narrow aisles and other restricted places Hazardous locations Ramps & other sloped surfaces Potential carbon monoxide hazard locations Other unique or potentially hazardous conditions

69 69 Workplace-Related Topics (3) (b) Surface conditions: – Type(s) of normal driving surface Performance of truck’s tires on normal surface – Surface conditions which may be encountered Water, snow, ice – Effects on traction, stopping ability Uneven ground and/or potholes –Effects on stability Gravel

70 70 Workplace-Related Topics (3) (b) Composition of loads to be carried Examples, from Non-mandatory appendix : – Irregular shaped loads and/or protrusions Changes to Center Of Gravity – Partially filled containers of liquid

71 71 Workplace-Related Topics (3) (b) Load manipulation, stacking and unstacking For example : – Reducing damage to powered industrial truck – Avoiding stresses to forks from overload – Welds on forks – Detection of broken or defective pallets, or pallets with improper repairs

72 72 Workplace-Related Topics (3) (b) Pedestrian traffic in areas where vehicle will be operated

73 73 Importance of training on pedestrian traffic: * * Important reminder that the driver is always the one responsible; never the pedestrian!

74 74 Workplace-Related Topics (3) (b) Narrow aisles Other restricted places; per existing paragraph (7) – including the inside of semi- truck trailers – including the inside of railroad cars

75 75 Workplace-Related Topics (3) (b) - Hazardous (classified) locations Ref: for 11 different designations of powered industrial truck appropriate to locations with explosive/combustible atmospheres

76 76 Workplace-Related Topics (3) (b) Potential carbon monoxide hazard locations – Closed environments – Insufficient ventilation –Poor vehicle maintenance

77 77 Workplace-Related Topics (3) (b) “Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions…” Per BLS data: 8% of all fatalities involving forklifts are from “driving off loading dock”

78 78 General Workplace Safety Item: One of the most common, yet most hazardous, practices is having people riding on the forks!! This should be addressed in all training programs

79 79

80 80 Refresher Training To Begin with: (4)(C) An evaluation of each operator’s performance must be conducted at least once every three years…..to determine if they require refresher training. WAC (4)

81 81 Refresher Training If the operator received all required training – truck-related – workplace-related and is evaluated and found competent, no refresher training is required

82 82 Refresher Training Is Required When the operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner How do you know? – Incident reports – Safety committee minutes – Maintenance reports – Equipment damage – “Shipping damage” – Employee complaints

83 83 Refresher Training Is Required The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident require additional training. documented accidents which don’t have corresponding documentation of refresher training and evaluation are asking for trouble!

84 84 “Quick Check” On Performance of Refresher Training: - What mechanism does the company have in place for: – Maintenance to report driver-caused damage? – Anyone to report a “near miss”?

85 85 “Quick Check” On Performance of Refresher Training: Does the supervisor know who caused the damage? Was follow-up evaluation and/or training documented? Bent support

86 86 Refresher Training Is Required Operator has received an evaluation that reveals the operator is not operating the truck safely.

87 87 Refresher Training Is Required When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck: Are there differences? Are they significant?

88 88 Refresher Training Is Required When a condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the truck. Operations Products/packaging Construction/remodeling Hundreds of other variables

89 89 Avoidance of Duplicative Training WAC (5) If an operator has previously received training in a topic specified in (3) of this section, and such training is appropriate to the truck and working conditions encountered, additional training in that topic is not required if the operator has been evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely, within three years.

90 90 Required Documentation Operator’s name Date of training Date of evaluation Identity of trainer/evaluator *Strongly recommended: outline of topics - both truck-specific and workplace-specific WAC (6)

91 91 Operator Restraints WAC Powered industrial truck operations Rule of thumb: Any sit down model of powered industrial truck manufactured since 1993 is required to have an operator restraint provided by the manufacturer.

92 (15) An active operator protection restraint device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

93 93 Older Models But once they’ve been added they must be maintained and used We don’t require retrofit of operator restraints

94 94

95 95 WRD 78-25A Forklift-type Equipment Used by “Order Pickers.” This WRD has been included in the standard

96 96 Powered industrial trucks used as order pickers... which do not have standard guardrails on all open sides, must be equipped with an approved fall arrest system

97 97 Order Pickers Acceptable fall protection

98 98 Order Pickers Not acceptable fall protection

99 99 Topics Covered: – Clear Rule Writing – Operator Training Requirement – Operator Restraints – Order Pickers

100 100 We acknowledge the cooperation of: CB Equipment Co, Kent Hyster Sales and Service, Tukwila Bottom Line Loss Control Valley Rentals, Tumwater Home Depot, Lacey Ivy Hi-Lift, Tacoma Nordic Cold Storage, Seattle

101 101 End of Presentation

102 Components of a Forklift Truck* *One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks

103 Classes of Commonly-Used Powered Industrial Trucks* The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered industrial trucks into 7 classes. –Class I - Electric motor rider trucks –Class II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucks –Class III - Electric motor hand trucks or hand/rider trucks –Class IV - Internal combustion engine trucks (solid/cushion tires) –Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks (pneumatic tires) –Class VI - Electric and internal combustion engine tractors –Class VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks * Note that this classification refers to commonly-used vehicles and does not include all powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard.

104 Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks Counterbalanced rider type, stand up Three wheel electric trucks, sit-down Counterbalanced rider type, cushion tires, sit- down (high and low platform) Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic tire, sit- down (high and low platform)

105 105 Refresher Training Is Required When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:

106 106 Refresher Training Is Required Are there differences? Are they significant? When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:

107 Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks

108 Counterbalanced Rider Type, Stand-Up

109 109 Truck Classifications Specific to type – Type I: Sit-down rider, electric

110 Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks High lift straddle Order picker Reach type outrigger Side loaders, turret trucks, swing mast and convertible turret/stock pickers Low lift pallet and platform (rider)

111 Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks

112 Class II - Narrow Aisle Trucks

113 113 Truck Classifications Specific to type – Type II: Electric, narrow-aisle

114 Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider Trucks Low lift platform Low lift walkie pallet Reach type outrigger High lift straddle High lift counterbalanced Low lift walkie/rider pallet

115 Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider Trucks

116 Class III - Hand & Hand/Rider Trucks

117 117 Truck Classifications Specific to type – Type III: Electric pallet jack

118 Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires Fork, counterbalanced (cushion/solid tires)

119 Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires

120 Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Pneumatic Tires Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic tires)

121 Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires)

122 122 Truck Classifications Specific to type – Type V: Internal combustion, pneumatic tire

123 Class VI - Electric & Internal Combustion Engine Tractors Sit-down rider

124 Class VII - Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks –Straight-mast forklift–Extended-reach forklift All rough terrain forklift trucks

125 Rough Terrain Straight Mast Forklifts

126 Rough Terrain Extended- Reach Forklifts

127 127 Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks Department of Labor and Industries WISHA Services Training and Outreach


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