2“Results. Why, man, I have gotten lots of results “Results! Why, man, I have gotten lots of results. I know several thousand things that won’t work”Thomas A. Edison
3ObjectivesList the factors of a hair analysis for chemical texture servicesExplain the physical and chemical actions that take place during permanent wavingList and describe the various types of permanent waving solutionsLEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)Salons around the world agree that permanent waving (also known as texture services) is one of the most popular services provided today. Because it is a service in such demand, you will be well-served by learning the various techniques and practicing the skills until they are mastered. Very primitive attempts at permanent waving were made by the early Egyptian and Roman civilizations. Egyptian men weaved their beards between sticks, applied mud, and then basked in the sun for 1 or 2 days. The Roman and Egyptian women were known to also apply mud to their hair and wrap it on crudely made wooden rollers and then bake it in the sun. They may have had curl for a while, but the results were, of course, not permanent. Can you even imagine having mud baked in your hair? We should all be thankful we live in the 21st century.We will learn more about the modern methods of permanent waving during this unit of study. It is important to keep in mind that a properly completed perm provides many valuable benefits to both the client and the stylist. Perming will promote longer lasting styles and make hair more manageable for the client at home. Perms add volume and fullness for styling and especially help hair with a soft, fine texture. On the other hand, the perm will create greater control of hair that is coarse, wiry, and hard to manage. You can see why this service is so popular with male and female clients of all ages.
5Permanently Alter Wave Patterns Curl straight hair – add volumeStraighten curly hair – smoothSoften coarse, straight hairPERMANENTLY ALTER WAVE PATTERNCurl straight hair, and add volume.Straighten overly-curly hair and smooth.Soften coarse, straight hair and make it more pliable and easier to work with.
6Types of Texture Services Permanent wavingSoft-curl permsChemical hair relaxingTYPES OF TEXTURE SERVICESPermanent waving.Soft-curl permanents. Also known as curl re-forming.Chemical hair relaxing.
7Cuticle Strong compact cuticle Damaged cuticle Hair StructureCuticleStrong compact cuticleDamaged cuticleSTRUCTURE OF HAIR: Figure 18-2 to 18-3.CUTICLE: The tough outer layer of the hair; surrounds the inner layers and protects hair from damage.
8Cortex Medulla pH and texture Hair StructureCortexMedullapH and texture
9Building Blocks of Hair Amino acidsPeptide bondsBUILDING BLOCKS OF HAIRAmino acids. Compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Figure 18-4.Peptide bonds (end bonds). Link amino acids together in long chains. Figure 18-5.
10Building Blocks of Hair Polypeptide chainsKeratin proteinsSide bondsPolypeptide chains. Formed by bonds that are linked together to form a polypeptide chain. Figure 18-6.Keratin proteins. Long chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds or end bonds; they make up about 97% of hair’s structure. Figure 18-7.Side bonds. (Disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds) cross link polypeptide chains together. Figure 18-8.
11Disulfide bonds Salt bonds Hydrogen bonds Side BondsDisulfide bondsSalt bondsHydrogen bondsSIDE BONDS: Cortex is made of millions of polypeptide chains cross-linked by three types of side bonds, or cross bonds.
12The Client Consultation Greet clientAsk open-ended questionsDetermine haircolor useReview photosDetermine texture service historyCONSULTATION GUIDELINESIntroduce self; greet client by name.Ask open-ended questions. Find out why client wants the texture service and what results are expected.Determine if haircolor is used.Review photos with client. Determine exactly what is wanted.Ask about past texture services. Determine what client liked and didn’t like.
13The Client Consultation Determine how client styles her hairDetermine desired resultsPerform hair analysisFill out chemical record cardAsk about current style. Discuss changes that would result from a texture service.Determine desired finished style. Consider the haircut and degree of texture or relaxing that is needed.Evaluate condition, texture, and wave pattern of hair.Fill out chemical service record. Document hair condition and desired outcome.
14Metallic Salts Test 1oz of 20-volume peroxide 20 drops of 28% ammonia Immerse 20 strands for 30 minutesAssess lighteningMETALLIC SALTS: Home haircoloring products containing metallic salts are not compatible with chemical texture services. Perform metallic salt test to prevent damage.TEST: In glass or plastic bowl, mix 1oz of 20-volume peroxide with 20 drops of 28% ammonia. Immerse at least 20 strands of hair in solution for 30 minutes. If metallic salts are not present, hair will lighten slightly and you may proceed. If metallic salts are present, hair will lighten rapidly and solution may get hot and emit an unpleasant odor. Do not proceed with service.
15Client Records CLIENT RECORDS: Figure 18-10. Include a complete hair analysis.Record previous problems or adverse reactions.Record service details. Type of product used, type and size of perm tools used, base direction, base control, wrapping technique, wrapping pattern, processing time, and results achieved.Update records with each service.CLIENT RELEASE FORMSigned prior to a service.May or may not release school or salon from responsibility.Indicate that client knew there was a possibility of damage to hair, etc.
16Hair and Scalp Analysis Scalp abrasionsTextureDensityPorosityElasticityGrowth directionSCALP ANALYSIS: Look for cuts, scratches, or open sores; do not proceed with service if skin abrasions or scalp disease is present. Refer to physician.HAIR ANALYSIS: Hair is the fastest growing appendage of the human body. Hair is affected by diet, exercises, medications, and stress.Five most important factors
17Coarse hair Medium hair Fine hair Hair TextureCoarse hairMedium hairFine hairHAIR TEXTURE: Describes the diameter of a single strand of hair and is classified as fine, medium, or coarse.
18Number of hairs per square inch Referred to as hair thickness Hair DensityNumber of hairs per square inchReferred to as hair thicknessHAIR DENSITY: Measures the number of strands of hair on the head per square inch; indicates how thick or thin hair is.
19Resistant hair Normal hair Porous hair Hair PorosityResistant hairNormal hairPorous hairHAIR POROSITY: Ability of the hair to absorb moisture; directly relates to condition of cuticle layer; classified as resistant, normal, or porous.
20Elasticity and Growth Direction NormalLowElasticity testHAIR ELASTICITY: The ability of the hair to stretch and return to normal shape without breaking. Indicates the strength of the side bonds that hold individual fibers in place. Determines the hair’s ability to hold a curl; classified as normal or low.
21Permanent Waving Physical change – wrapping on rods Chemical change – perm solution and neutralizerCurl size determines rodPERMANENT WAVING: This is a two-step process. The first part is the physical change caused by wrapping the hair on rods.The second part involves the chemical change caused by the waving solution and neutralizer.THE PERM WRAP
22Concave Straight Long Short Perm Tools - RodsConcaveStraightLongShortPERM TOOLS: Come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes and can be combined with different wrapping methods to produce a wide range of results.ROD TYPES
23Soft bender rods Loop rods Other Perm RodsSoft bender rodsLoop rodsSOFT BENDER RODS: Usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along entire length. They are soft foam rods with a stiff inner wire that allows them to take on a variety of shapes. Can be used with a croquignole or spiral technique.LOOP OR CIRCLE RODS: Usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter; ideal for wrapping extremely long hair. When fastened together, they form a circle.
24Double flat wrap Single flat wrap Bookend wrap End PapersDouble flat wrapSingle flat wrapBookend wrapEND PAPERS: Also known as end wraps. They are absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping. When wrapping, papers should extend beyond ends of hair to prevent “fishhooks.”
25Sectioning Panels Base sections SECTIONING Panels. Size, shape, and direction of panels vary based on type of wrapping pattern and type and size of tool being used.Base sections. Panels are divided into subsections called base sections. One tool is placed on each base section; size of base section is usually length and width of tool being used.
26Base Placement and Direction On-baseHalf-baseOff-baseBase directionBASE PLACEMENT: Refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section; determined by the angle at which hair is wrapped.
27Croquignole Spiral Piggyback Wrapping TechniquesCroquignoleSpiralPiggybackWRAPPING TECHNIQUESCroquignole. Hair strands are wrapped from ends to the scalp in overlapping layers. Curl is tighter on ends and gets larger nearer the scalp.Spiral. Hair is wound from ends to the scalp; some tools, however, allow wrapping from scalp to ends. The angle at which the hair is wrapped causes the hair to spiral along the length of the tool, like the grip on a tennis racquet. This technique produces a more uniform curl from scalp to ends. Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod.Piggyback. In extra-long hair, hair is wrapped on one rod from scalp to midway down hair shaft. Another rod is used to wrap remaining hair strand.
28Chemistry of Perm Waving Reduction reaction: addition of hydrogen or removal of oxygenDisulfide bond joins sulfur atomsSolution breaks a disulfide bondSulfur atoms attach to solution hydrogenOnce broken, polypeptide chains form in new shapeCHEMISTRY OF PERM WAVINGREDUCTION REACTIONSolution softens and swells hair. This raises the cuticle and permits solution to penetrate cortex. Once in the cortex, solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called reduction. A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen. In permanent waving, the reaction is a result of the addition of hydrogen.Disulfide bond joins a sulfur atom on one polypeptide chain with a second sulfur atom on a neighboring polypeptide chain.Solution breaks a disulfide bond by adding a hydrogen atom to each of the sulfur atoms in the disulfide bond.Sulfur atoms attach to the hydrogen from the solution, breaking their attachment to each other. Once broken, polypeptide chains are able to be re-shaped into new curl.
29Reduction breaks disulfide bonds Oxidation reforms them Reduction ReactionReduction breaks disulfide bondsOxidation reforms them
30Reducing Agents Thio compounds Solution strength Thioglycolic acid Ammonium thioglycolatePerm pHREDUCING AGENTS: Found in all permanent wave solutions.Thio compounds. Commonly referred to as thio. Thioglycolic acid is the most common. It is a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor. It provides the hydrogen that causes the reduction in permanent waving solutions.Strength of solutions. Determined by the concentration of thio. Stronger solutions have a higher concentration of thio with a greater number of hydrogen atoms. The greater the hydrogen atoms available, the more disulfide bonds are broken.Thioglycolic acid. An acid that does not swell hair or penetrate the cortex; therefore, manufacturers have to add an alkalizing agent. When added, a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate is formed and this is alkaline.Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG). The main active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline perms.Perm pH. Second factor in overall strength of permanent waving solution. Coarse hair with strong, resistant cuticle layer may need additional swelling and penetration. The pH of solution should correspond to the resistance, strength, and porosity of the cuticle layer.
33Types of Permanent Waves Alkaline waves or cold wavesUse ammonium thioglycolatepH between 9.0 and 9.6Acid wavesUse glyceryl monothioglycolatepH between 4.5 and 7.0Require heat to speed processingTYPES OF PERMANENT WAVESAlkaline waves or cold waves. First developed in 1941 using ammonium thioglycolate (ATG); became known as cold waves since they process at room temperature without adding heat; usually have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6.True acid waves. Introduced in early 1970s; usually have a pH of 4.5 to 7.0 and require heat to speed processing. The main active ingredient is glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG), which is acid and has a low pH. (GMTG is the primary reducing agent in all modern acid waves, but may not be the only reducing agent). Acid waves process more slowly and do not produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves.They have a pH below 7.0.A pH of 5.0 is neutral for hair. Because pH is calculated on a logarithmic scale, a pH of 7.0 is 100 times more alkaline than the pH of hair; therefore, acid waves can swell the hair.
34Acid-Balanced Waves pH of 7.8 to 8.2 Three components Wave solution Activator (contains GMTG)NeutralizerAcid-balanced waves and components. Most have a pH between 7.8 and 8.2, which means they are not true acid waves; modern acid waves are acid-balanced and process more quickly and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.
35Other Types of Waves Exothermic Endothermic Ammonia-free Thio-free Low-pHUse sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfitesEXOTHERMIC AND COMPONENTS: These perms create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing. They use permanent waving thio solution. Activator contains an oxidizing agent (usually hydrogen peroxide), and mixing oxidizer with solution causes a rapid release of heat and an increase of temperature of the solution. Heat increases the rate of the chemical reaction and reduces the processing time.ENDOTHERMIC WAVES: These perms are activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hood dryer; will not process properly at room temperature.AMMONIA-FREE WAVES: Main ingredient does not evaporate as readily as ammonia. Aminomethylpropanol (AMP) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are examples of alkanolamines that are used as substitutes for ammonia. Odor is reduced but damage can still occur.THIO-FREE WAVES: These perms use a reducing agent other than ammonium thioglycolate such as cysteamine or mercaptamine, which are thio compounds. At high concentration, the reducing agents in thio-free can be as damaging as thio.LOW-pH WAVES: Not very popular as they are weak and do not provide a firm curl; usually marketed as body waves.
36Average processing time Overprocessed hair Underprocessed hair PERMANENT WAVE PROCESSINGMost processing takes place in first 5 to 10 minutes.Additional time allows polypeptide chains to shift to new configuration.OVERPROCESSED HAIRDoes not mean overly curly. If too many disulfide bonds are broken, hair will be too weak to hold a firm curl.May be completely straight. Hair at scalp is usually stronger than ends so overprocessed hair is usually curlier at the scalp and straighter at the ends. UNDERPROCESSED HAIR: If too few disulfide bonds are broken, hair will not be sufficiently softened and will not hold the desired curl. Hair at scalp is usually not as curly as the ends; more processing will make it curlier.
37Perm SelectionSELECTING THE RIGHT TYPE OF PERM: NOTE: Refer to Table 18-2, which lists the common types of permanent waves and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Point out that these are general guidelines only.CAUTION: Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions and the MSDS for each product for accurate, detailed product information.
39Perm Waving Neutralization Stage two: Rebuilds disulfide bondsPost-perm hair careSTAGE TWO: Waving solution breaks disulfide bonds by adding hydrogen atoms to sulfur atoms in the disulfide bonds.Neutralization rebuilds disulfide bonds by removing extra hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen atoms attract to oxygen in neutralizer and release their bond with sulfur atoms and join with the oxygen. Each oxygen atom joins with two hydrogen atoms to rebuild one disulfide bond and make one molecule of water. Water is removed in the final rinse and the disulfide bonds form in their new curled position.
40Safety Precautions Protect client clothing Determine allergic reaction Examine scalpDetermine extent of damageDetermine prior hydroxide relaxer usePerform metallic salt testSAFETY PRECAUTIONSProtect client clothing. Have client change into gown, use a waterproof cape, and double drape with towels to absorb accidental spills.Determine allergic reaction. Do not proceed if client has experienced allergic reaction before.Examine scalp. Do not proceed if skin abrasions or scalp disease is present.Determine extent of damage. Do not proceed if there is extensive damage or signs of breakage.Determine prior hydroxide relaxers. Do not proceed if hair has been treated with hydroxide relaxers.Perform metallic salt test.
41Safety Precautions Apply protective barrier Do not dilute or add ingredientsProtect eyes and skinFollow manufacturer’s directionsWear glovesReplace wet cotton or towelsDiscard unused productApply protective barrier. Apply to hairline and around ears.Do not dilute or add ingredients. Unless so specified in manufacturer’s directions.Keep solution away from eyes and skin. If exposed, rinse thoroughly with cool water.Always follow manufacturer’s directions.Wear gloves when applying solutions.Replace wet cotton or towels.Discard unused product. Do not save unused waving lotion or neutralizer.
42Summary and ReviewWhat is the difference between end bonds and side bonds?Describe three types of side bondsSUMMARY AND REVIEWHair structure has a significant impact on the physical and chemical actions that occur in permanent waving. Proper hair and scalp analysis as well as a thorough client consultation must be completed prior to giving a perm service. Hair condition, texture, length, porosity, elasticity, and so forth will affect the rod size and products you choose for perming. Depending on the client’s desired results, you will choose one of many products and wrapping patterns.Let’s review.
43Summary and Review How do different services change side bonds? Explain the difference between croquignole and spiral wrappingHow does the reduction reaction in a thio solution work?
44What is the function of thio neutralization? Summary and ReviewWhat is the function of thio neutralization?What is the function of thio neutralization?ANSWER:STAGE ONE: The first function of neutralization is deactivation, or neutralization, of any waving lotion remaining in the hair after processing and rinsing.STAGE TWO: This stage rebuilds the disulfide bonds by removing the extra hydrogen atoms and allowing the disulfide bonds to form in their new curled position.
45List and describe the 8 major types of permanent waving solutions Summary and ReviewList and describe the 8 major types of permanent waving solutionsList and describe the eight major types of permanent waving solutions.ANSWER:Alakaline Waves. Use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) and process at room temperature without additon of heat.True acid waves. Have a pH of 4.5 to 7.0 and require heat to process; contain glyceryl monothioglycolate.Acid-balanced waves. Have a pH of 7.8 to 8.2 and process at room temperature with the addition of heat; process quickly and produce firmer curls than true acid waves.Exothermic waves. Create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the solution and speeds up the processing.Endothermic waves. Produce an endothermic chemical reaction that absorbs heat from its surroundings; they are activated by an outside heat source such as a conventional hood dryer.Ammonia-free waves. Use ingredients called alkanolamines which substitute for ammonia and produce very little odor.Thio-free waves. Rely on cysteamine or mercaptamine, which use thio substitutes as their reducing agent.Low-pH waves. Use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites as an alternative to ammonium thioglycolate; not popular because they are weak and do not provide a firm curl.
46You’ve just completed one unit of study toward program completion! Congratulations!You’ve just completedone unit of study towardprogram completion!