2“Results. Why, man, I have gotten lots of results “Results! Why, man, I have gotten lots of results. I know several thousand things that won’t work.” – Thomas A. Edison
3ObjectivesExplain the structure and purpose of each of the hair’s layers.Explain the chemical actions that take place during permanent waving.Explain the difference between an alkaline wave and a true acid wave.Explain the purpose of neutralization in permanent waving.
4Objectives (continued) Describe how thio relaxers straighten the hair.Describe how hydroxide relaxers straighten the hair.Describe curl re-forming and what it is best used for.LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)Salons around the world agree that permanent waving (also known as texture services) is one of the most popular services provided today. Because it is a service in such demand, you will be well-served by learning the various techniques and practicing them until they are mastered. Very primitive attempts at permanent waving were made by the early Egyptian and Roman civilizations. Egyptian men weaved their beards between sticks, applied mud, and then baked in the sun for one or two days. Roman and Egyptian women applied mud to their hair and wrapped it on crudely made wooden rollers before it baked in the sun. They may have had curl for a while, but the results were, of course, not permanent. And imagine having baked mud in your hair! This unit discusses the modern methods of permanent waving. It is important to keep in mind that a properly completed perm provides many valuable benefits to both the client and the stylist. Texture services promote longer-lasting styles and make hair more manageable for the client at home. Perms add volume and fullness for styling and especially help hair with a soft, fine texture. Perms also create greater control of hair that is coarse, wiry, and hard to manage. Cosmetologists skilled in the art of chemical hair relaxing are also in great demand today. The service is used for clients of many nationalities who have extracurly hair. With today’s technology, hair that is very curly can be relaxed and styled in a wide variety of methods without much difficulty. Great strides have been made since the early days when people attempted to soften curly hair with a mixture of mashed potatoes, lye, and oil. Hair was also wrapped and twisted in an effort to straighten it. These unsophisticated techniques sometimes resulted in hair loss.In today’s salons, services such as chemical relaxing and soft-curl permanents are priced higher than many other services. Therefore, it is of extreme benefit to you as a student of cosmetology to become proficient in all these services. These skills will generate revenue and increase your profits when you enter the salon. Remember: A good cosmetologist can do hair, but a great one can perform all types of services on all types of hair with success. Thorough hair and scalp analysis will be essential to creating successful styles using these chemical services. The process of chemical hair relaxing permanently rearranges the basic structure of overly curly hair into a straight (or less curly) form. When done professionally, it leaves the hair relaxed and in satisfactory condition which can then be given a wide variety of styles. A professional relaxing service can literally be the difference between disaster and a dazzling finished look.
5Chemical Texture Services Cause a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hairAllow you to offer clients a variety of styling options not otherwise available
7Types of Services Permanent waving: adding wave or curl to hair Relaxing: removing curl, leaving hair smooth and freeCurl re-forming: loosening overly curly hair into softer curls or waves
8Hair StructureCuticle: tough outer layer of hair; surrounds the inner layers and protects hair from damage
9Hair Structure (continued) Cortex: middle layer of hair located beneath cuticle; responsible for hair strength and elasticityMedulla: innermost layer of hair, often called pith or core; does not play a role in restructuring; missing in some types of hair
10pH and TexturepH means potential hydrogen. It represents the quantity of hydrogen ions and measures the acidity and alkalinity of a substance.pH scale has a range of 0 to 14; 7 is neutral.Below 7 is acid.Above 7 is alkaline.Hair is 4.5 to 5.5.pH AND TEXTUREChemical texturizers raise the pH of hair to an alkaline state to soften and sealthe hair shaft.
11Building Blocks of Hair Amino acids: compounds made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfurPeptide (end) bonds: chemical bonds that join amino acids together end-to-end in long chains to form polypeptide chainsPolypeptide chains: formed by peptide bonds linked togetherKeratin proteins: make up about 97 percent of hair’s structure
12Building Blocks of Hair (continued) Side bonds: disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together
15Keratin ProteinsMade up of long, coiled chains of amino acids linked together end-to-end like beads by end bonds
16Side BondsDisulfide: formed when sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined; only broken by chemicals; account for about 1/3 of hair’s strengthSIDE BONDSThe cortex is made up of millions of polypeptide chains cross-linked by three types of side bonds.
17Side Bonds (continued) Salt: relatively weak physical side bonds resulting from an attraction between negative and positive electrical charges; can be broken by water; account for about 1/3 of hair’s strengthHydrogen: weak physical side bonds resulting from an attraction between opposite electrical charges; easily broken by water; account for about 1/3 of hair’s strength
18Two-Step Process of Permanent Waving Physical change: caused by wrapping the hair on toolsChemical change: caused by the processing of waving solution and neutralizerTWO-STEP PROCESS OF PERMANENT WAVINGThe permanent wave is commonly called a perm.
19Perm WrapA perm wrap is essentially a wet set on perm tools instead of rollers.Wet set breaks hydrogen bonds only.Perm breaks disulfide bonds that are stronger and more resistant.PERM WRAPThe terms tools and rods are used interchangeably.
20Curl DeterminationSize, shape, and type of tool determine shape of new curl.Perm softens hair to conform to new shape after wrapping.Uniform, even tension produces the resulting curl (too much tension can mark or break the hair).
21Perm ToolsTools come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes that can be combined with different wrapping methods to provide a range of styles.
22Types of ToolsConcave rods have smaller circumference in middle than on ends.Straight rods have consistent diameter.
23Types of Tools (continued) Soft bender rods are about 12 inches long with equal diameter; they are made of soft foam and take a variety of shapes.Loop or circle rods fasten together to form a circle.
24End Papers Double flat wrap Single flat wrap Bookend wrap END PAPERS End papers, also known as end wraps, are absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping. End papers should extend beyond the ends of the hair to prevent fishhooks.
25SectioningPanels: size, shape, and direction of panels vary based on type of wrapping pattern and type and size of toolBase sections: subsections of a panel based on size of tool
26Base Placement On-base placement Half–off base placement Base placement refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section; it is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
27Base DirectionThe angle at which the tool is positioned and the directional wrap patternBASE DIRECTIONBase direction refers to the angle at which the tool is positioned on the head: horizontally, vertically, or diagonally.It also refers to the directional pattern in which hair is wrapped: backward, forward, to one side, and so on. Wrapping against the natural growth pattern causes excess stress that may damage or break hair.
28Wrapping TechniquesCroquignole: hair wrapped from ends to scalp in overlapping concentric layers
29Wrapping Techniques (continued) Spiral: hair wrapped at an angle to form a coil (like the grip of a tennis racket)
30Wrapping Techniques (continued) Piggyback (double-rod wrap): hair wrapped on one rod from scalp to middle of strand; another rod used for remaining strand
31Chemistry of Perm Waving Alkaline solutions soften and swell the hair and open the cuticle.Acid solutions result in far less swelling of the hair than alkaline solutions.
32Reduction ReactionOnce the waving solution is in the cortex, it breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called reduction.Reduction involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen.
33Perm Waving Reactions Disulfide bond joins sulfur atoms. Disulfide bond is broken.Sulfur atoms attach to hydrogen from solution.Polypeptide chains re-form.PERM WAVING REACTIONSThe chemical process of permanent waving involves the following reactions:1. A disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms in two adjacent polypeptide chains.2. The permanent wave solution breaks a disulfide bond by adding a hydrogen atom to each of its sulfur atoms.3. The sulfur atoms attach to the hydrogen from the permanent waving solution, breaking their attachment to each other.4. Once the disulfide bond is broken, the polypeptide chains can form into their new curled shape. Reduction breaks disulfide bonds (Figure 20–31) and oxidation re-forms them.
34Reducing Agents Thio compounds Strength of solutions: determined by concentration of thioThioglycolic acid: causes reduction in perm solutionsAmmonium thioglycolate (ATG): main ingredient in alkaline permsPerm pH: second factor in solution strengthREDUCING AGENTSAll permanent waving solutions contain a reducing agent commonly referred to as thio. Thio contains carboxylic acid and a thiol, which is a particular group of compounds. Thioglycolic acid, a colorless liquid with a strong, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent waving solutions. The strength of the solution is determined primarily by the concentration of thio. Stronger perms have a higher concentration of thio, which means that, compared to weaker perms, more disulfide bonds are broken.Because acids neither swell the hair nor penetrate into the cortex, it is necessary for manufacturers to add an alkalizing agent to the solution. The addition of ammonia to thioglycolic acid produces a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate (ATG), which is alkaline and the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.The degree of alkalinity (pH) is a second factor in the overall strength of the waving solution. Coarse hair with a strong, resistant cuticle layer needs the additional swelling and penetration that is provided by a more alkaline waving solution.By contrast, porous hair, or hair with a damaged cuticle layer, is easily penetrated and could be damaged by a highly alkaline permanent waving solution. The alkalinity of the solution should correspond to the resistance, strength, and porosity of the cuticle layer.
35Types of Permanent Waves A variety of permanent waves are available in salons today. The chart depicts how perms can vary from being acid balanced to highly alkaline, depending on the type and formulation.
36Types of Permanent Waves (continued) Alkaline waves (cold waves): pH between 9.0 and 9.6Acid waves: glyceryl monothioglycolate main ingredient; low pHTrue acid waves: pH of 4.5 to 7.0; require heat to processAcid-balanced: pH of 7.8 to 8.2 (not true acid waves)The pH of hair is 4.5 to 5.5 and considered neutral.Because pH is calculated on a logarithmic scale, a pH of 7.0 is 100 times more alkaline than the pH of hair.
37Types of Permanent Waves (continued) Exothermic waves: chemical reaction heats solution and speeds processingEndothermic waves: activated by outside heat sourceAmmonia-free waves: main ingredient does not evaporate as readily as ammonia
38Types of Permanent Waves (continued) Thio-free waves: reducing agent is not ATG; use cysteamine or mercaptamineLow-pH waves: use sulfates, sulfites, and bisulfites; weak and do not provide firm curl; marketed as body waves or alternative waves
39Selecting Perm Type SELECTING PERM TYPE It is important to select the right type of perm for each client. Each client's hair has a distinct texture and condition, so individual needs must always be addressed. After a thorough consultation, you should be able to determine which type of permanent is best suited to your client's hair type, hair condition, and desired results.Table 20–1 lists the most common types of permanent waves, along with selected advantages and disadvantages for each. These are only general guidelines. Just because a perm is indicated for use on color-treated hair does not mean it is safe for damaged or bleached hair. Also, hair that has been treated with a semipermanent color, which coats the hair, is more resistant than and not as porous as hair treated with permanent color.
40ProcessingThe amount of processing time should be determined by the strength of the solution, not necessarily how long the perm is processed.Most processing takes 5 to 10 minutes.Additional time allows polypeptide chains to shift to new configuration
41Overprocessed HairDoes not mean overly curly. If too many disulfide bonds are broken, hair is too weak to hold a firm curl.Has weak curl or may be completely straight. Hair at scalp is stronger than ends.
42Underprocessed HairIf too few disulfide bonds are broken, hair will not be sufficiently softened and will not hold the desired curl; hair at scalp is not as curly as ends; more processing time is required.
43Perm Waving (Thio) Neutralization Neutralization stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form. It performs two functions:Deactivates waving solutionRebuilds broken disulfide bonds
44Neutralization: Stage One Rinse hair for five full minutes.Towel-blot thoroughly but gently.If directed, apply a preneutralizing conditioner to strengthen hair.
45Proper Rinsing and Blotting Rinse with warm water.Always use a gentle water stream.Avoid pressure on rods while rinsing.Rinse most fragile areas first.Thoroughly rinse nape area and rod bottoms.Rinse for recommended time.
46Proper Rinsing and Blotting (continued) Smell hair; continue rinsing if needed.Gently blot hair with towel (hair is weak).Check for excess moisture, especially at nape.Adjust any loosened or drifted rods.
47Neutralization: Stage Two Disulfide bonds are broken with hydrogen.Disfulfide bonds are rebuilt.Hydrogen bonds attract oxygen.Water molecule is formed.Water is removed.Side bonds are re-formed.NEUTRALIZATION: STAGE TWOAs discussed previously, permanent waving solution breaks disulfide bonds by adding hydrogen.Thio neutralization rebuilds the disulfide bonds by removing the hydrogen that was added by the permanent waving solution.The hydrogen atoms are strongly attracted to the oxygen in the neutralizer; they release their bond with the sulfur atoms and join with the oxygen.Each oxygen atom joins with two hydrogen atoms to rebuild one disulfide bond, forming a water molecule. The water is removed in the final rinse.Side bonds are then re-formed into their new shape as different pairs.
48Partial Perms Used when the entire head is not permed Hair long on top, but short and close on sidesSome hair too short to wrap on rodsSleek crown and curly perimeter desiredVolume desired in certain areas onlyTransition techniques usedPARTIAL PERMSTransition techniques include using a larger rod next to the unrolled section, using a zigzag part between the rolled and unrolled sections, and applying protective barrier cream to the unrolled section.
49Perms for MenMany men are looking for added texture, fullness, style, and low maintenance that only a perm can provide.Perms look fuller, make straight or coarse hair more manageable, and help control stubborn cowlicks.Techniques are the same for men and women.
50Preliminary Test Curls Determine correct processing timeIdentify expected resultsDetermine curl results for the rod size and wrapping techniquePRELIMINARY TEST CURLSPreliminary test curls help you determine how your client's hair will react to a perm. It is advisable to do preliminary test curls if the hair is damaged or if there is any uncertainty about the results. Preliminary test curls provide the following information:Correct processing time for the best curl developmentResults you can expect from the type of perm solution you have selectedCurl results for the rod size and wrapping technique you are planning to use
52Perm Safety Precautions (continued) Do not dilute or add ingredientsKeep solution away from eyes and skinAlways follow manufacturer’s directionsWear gloves when applying solutionsReplace wet cotton or towelsDiscard unused products
53Practical Procedures Pre- and Post-Service Preliminary Test Curl Basic Perm WrapCurvature Perm WrapBricklay Perm WrapWeave Perm WrapDouble-Rod WrapSpiral WrapPRACTICAL PROCEDURESNOTE: Explain to the students when and where the Practical Class will occur (perhaps now). Tell them that you will hand out procedure sheets for each of the following procedures and that they will follow along as you review. They will put away the procedure sheets during the actual demonstration (performed either by you or by the applicable Milady DVD to ensure consistency between demonstrations).
54Chemical Hair Relaxers Chemical hair relaxing is the process of rearranging the basic structure of extremely curly hair into a straighter or smoother form.CHEMICAL HAIR RELAXERSOther than having quite different objectives the permanent wave and relaxer services are very similar. In fact, the chemistry of thio relaxers and permanent waving is exactly the same.The chemistry of hydroxide relaxers and permanent waving is different, but all relaxers and permanents change the shape of the hair by breaking disulfide bonds.The two most common types of chemical hair relaxers are thio (ammonium thioglycolate) and sodium hydroxide.
55Extremely Curly HairExtremely curly hair grows in long, twisted spirals, or coils. Cross-sections are highly elliptical; they vary in shape and thickness along their lengths. The thinnest and weakest sections are located at the twists.EXTREMELY CURLY HAIRExtremely curly hair grows in long, twisted spirals, or coils. Cross-sections are highly elliptical (deviating from perfect circular or spherical form), and vary in shape and thickness along their lengths. Compared to straight or wavy hair, which tends to possess a fairly regular and uniform diameter along a single strand, extremely curly hair is irregular, exhibiting varying diameters along a single strand.The thinnest and weakest sections of the hair strands are located at the twists. These sections are bent at an extremely sharp angle and will be stretched the most during relaxing. Hair breaks at its weakest point. Extremely curly hair usually breaks at the twists because of the inherent weakness there and because of the extra physical force that is required to straighten those sections.
56Thio Relaxers Main ingredient: ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) Usually have a pH above 10Usually have a higher concentration of ATGHave a thicker viscosityBreak disulfide bonds and soften hairTHIO RELAXERSThio relaxers use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above 10). Thio relaxers also have a higher viscosity, the measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows, making them more suitable for application as a relaxer.Thio relaxers break disulfide bonds and soften hair, just as permanents do. After enough bonds are broken, the hair is straightened into its new shape and the relaxer is rinsed from the hair. Blotting comes next, followed by a neutralizer. The chemical reactions of thio relaxers are identical to those in permanent waving.
57Thio NeutralizationThe neutralization used with thio relaxers is an oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide. The oxidation reaction caused by the neutralizer rebuilds the disulfide bonds that were broken by the thio relaxer.THIO NEUTRALIZATIONThe process works just like a perm.
58Japanese Thermal Straighteners Hair is shampooed and conditioned.Straightener is distributed evenly.Hair is processed to desired curl reduction.Hair is thoroughly rinsed (10 minutes).Hair is conditioned and blown dry.Sections are flat ironed.Hair is neutralized and blown dry.JAPANESE THERMAL STRAIGHTENERSJapanese thermal straightening, sometimes called thermal reconditioning or TR, combines the use of a thio relaxer with flat ironing. When first introduced, the straighteners were called thermal ionic reconstructors.Each manufacturer has slightly different procedures. Generally, after the hair is shampooed and conditioned, the straightener is applied to sections, distributed evenly and processed until the desired degree of curl or frizz reduction is reached. Then, the hair is rinsed thoroughly, for about 10 minutes, conditioned, and blown completely dry. Next, each section is flat ironed; several passes of the flat iron are required for each section. (The added heat and mechanical pressing help make these formulas more effective than standard thio relaxers.) The hair is then neutralized and blown dry.The service can take several hours and is not always appropriate for extremely curly hair or some color-treated hair. Thermal reconditioning is considered a specialty, and many manufacturers require certification in their particular procedure.
59Hydroxide Relaxers Examples: Not compatible with thio relaxers Sodium hydroxidePotassium hydroxideLithium hydroxideGuanidine hydroxideNot compatible with thio relaxersHave a pH of 13.0 or moreLanthionizationHYDROXIDE RELAXERSThe hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers, which are very strong alkalis with a pH over 13.0 Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, and guanidine hydroxide are all types of hydroxide relaxers, which can swell the hair up to twice its normal diameter.Hydroxide relaxers are not compatible with thio relaxers, permanent waving, or soft-curl perms because they use a different chemistry. The high pH of a thio relaxer is needed to swell the hair, but it is the thio that breaks the disulfide bonds.Hydroxide relaxers have a pH so high that the alkalinity alone breaks the disulfide bonds. The average pH of the hair is 5.0, and many hydroxide relaxers have a pH over Since each step in the pH scale represents a tenfold change in concentration, a pH of 13.0 is 100 million times more alkaline than a pH of 5.0.Hydroxide relaxers break disulfide bonds differently than in the reduction reaction of thio relaxers. In lanthionization, the relaxers remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a lanthionine bond. A disulfide bond consists of two bonded sulfur atoms. Lanthionine bonds contain only one sulfur atom. The disulfide bonds that are broken by hydroxide relaxers are broken permanently and can never be re-formed. That is why hair that has been treated with a hydroxide relaxer is unfit for permanent waving and will not hold curl.
60Types of Hydroxide Relaxers Metal hydroxide relaxers: ionic compounds formed by a metal such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), or lithium (Li) that is combined with oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H). Metal hydroxide relaxers include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and lithium hydroxide (LiOH).The active ingredient is the hydroxide ion.
61Types of Hydroxide Relaxers (continued) Lye-based relaxers: sodium hydroxide relaxers, also known as caustic sodaOldest and most common type of relaxersSame chemical used in drain cleaners and chemical hair depilatories
62Types of Hydroxide Relaxers (continued) No-lye relaxers: lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide often sold as no-mix, no lye relaxersEven though not lye, chemistry identical and little difference in their performances
63Types of Hydroxide Relaxers (continued) Guanidine hydroxide relaxers: also sold as no-lye relaxers.Hydroxide ion is active ingredientRequire two components to be mixedStraighten hair completelyLess scalp irritation; use for sensitive scalpDo not reduce hair damageMore drying to hairTYPES OF HYDROXIDE RELAXERSGuanidine hydroxide relaxers are also advertised and sold as no-lye relaxers. Although technically they are not lye, the hydroxide ion is still the active ingredient. Guanidine hydroxide relaxers contain two components that must be mixed immediately prior to use. These relaxers straighten the hair completely, with less scalp irritation than other hydroxide relaxers. Most guanidine hydroxide relaxers are recommended for sensitive scalps, and they are sold over-the-counter for home use. Although they reduce scalp irritation, they do not reduce hair damage. They swell the hair slightly more than other hydroxide relaxers do, and they are also more drying, especially after repeated applications.
64Types of Hydroxide Relaxers (continued) Low pH relaxers: ammonium sulfite and ammonium bisulfite most commonly usedCompatible with thio; not compatible with hydroxideDo not completely straighten extremely curly hairCan be used on color-treated, damaged, or fine hair
65Base and No-Base Relaxers Base: require application of base cream to protect skin and scalp during relaxingNo-base: do not require protective base cream since they already contain a base cream that melts at body temperature; protective cream may be applied around ears and hairline.
66Relaxer StrengthsMild: formulated for fine, color-treated, or damaged hairRegular: intended for normal hair texture with medium natural curlSuper: used for maximum strengthening on extremely curly, coarse hairRELAXER STRENGTHSCaution: Extreme damage can occur if thio or hydroxide relaxers are applied to hair that has been colored with products containing metallic salts.
67Periodic Strand Testing Processing time varies according to strength of relaxer and hair type and condition. You may stretch the strand to determine if curls are removed, or smooth and press the strand to the scalp with the back of comb or fingers. If strand remains smooth, it is sufficiently relaxed.
68Hydroxide Neutralization Process does not involve oxidation or rebuilding disulfide bonds.Hair remains at a high pH.Acid-balanced shampoo or normalizing lotion is used.Caution: Hair that has been treated with hydroxide relaxers is unfit for thio relaxers or soft-curl perms.HYDROXIDE NEUTRALIZATIONUnlike thio neutralization, hydroxide neutralization is an acid-alkali neutralization that deactivates the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp; hydroxide relaxer neutralization does not involve oxidation or rebuilding disulfide bonds. The pH of hydroxide relaxers is so high that the hair remains at an extremely high pH, even after thorough rinsing. Although rinsing is important, rinsing alone does not neutralize the relaxer, nor does it restore the normal acidic pH of the hair and scalp.Acids neutralize alkalis. Therefore, the application of an acid-balanced shampoo or a normalizing lotion neutralizes any remaining hydroxide ions to lower the pH of the hair and scalp. Some neutralizing shampoos intended for use after hydroxide relaxers have a built-in pH indicator that changes color to show when the pH of the hair has returned to normal.The neutralization of a hydroxide relaxer does not rebuild the disulfide bonds. Since the disulfide bonds that have been broken by hydroxide relaxers cannot be re-formed by oxidation, application of a neutralizer that contains an oxidizing agent will not be of any benefit and will only damage the hair.
70Keratin Straightening Treatments Contain silicone polymers and formalin, which release formaldehyde gas when heated to high temperaturesDo not break bonds; treatment applied, hair blown dry, and flat iron set at 450°F is used on narrow sections to polymerize a coating on the hairEliminate up to 95 percent of frizz and curlLast three to five monthsKERATIN STRAIGHTENING TREATMENTSAlso called smoothing treatments or Brazilian keratin treatments.
71Steps to Keratin Straightening Perform consultation.Pre-conditioning: Equalize porosity.Permanent color/highlights: Use mild to regular shampoo.Toners or demigloss: Perform three to five days after keratin treatment.
72Relaxer Safety Precautions Do thorough hair analysis and consultation.Examine the scalp for abrasions.Keep accurate and detailed client records.Have client sign a release statement.Do not apply hydroxide over thio.Do not apply thio over hydroxide.Do not relax hair treated with metallic dye.Do not relax overly damaged hair.RELAXER AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONSPerform a thorough hair analysis and client consultation prior to the service.Examine the scalp for abrasions. Do not proceed with the service if redness, swelling, or skin lesions are present.Keep accurate and detailed client records of the services performed and the results achieved.Have the client sign a release statement indicating that he or she understands the possible risks related to the service.Do not apply a hydroxide relaxer on hair that has been previously treated with a thio relaxer.Do not apply a thio relaxer or soft curl perm on hair that has been previously treated with a hydroxide relaxer.Do not chemically relax hair that has been treated with a metallic dye.Do not relax overly damaged hair. Suggest instead a series of reconstruction treatments.
73Relaxer Safety Precautions (continued) Do not shampoo prior to hydroxide relaxer.Make sure hair and scalp are dry.Apply protective base cream.Wear gloves.Protect client’s eyes.Flush eyes if solution touches.Do not allow product to touch ears, scalp, or skin.Do not shampoo the client prior to the application of a hydroxide relaxer.The client's hair and scalp must be completely dry and free from perspiration prior to the application of a hydroxide relaxer.Apply a protective base cream to avoid scalp irritation.Wear gloves during the relaxer application.Protect the client's eyes.If any solution accidentally gets into the client's eye, flush the eye immediately with cool water and refer the client to a doctor.Do not allow chemical relaxers to come into contact with the client's ears, scalp, or skin.
74Relaxer Safety Precautions (continued) Perform periodic strand testsAvoid scratching scalpDo not overlap relaxer on hair strandAdjust strength for fine/damaged hairDo not remove more than 80 percent of curlThoroughly rinse relaxer from hairUse normalizing lotionPerform periodic strand tests to see how fast the natural curls are being removed.Avoid scratching the scalp with your comb or fingernails.Do not allow the application of a relaxer retouch to overlap onto previously relaxed hair.Never use a strong relaxer on fine or damaged hair. It may cause breakage.Do not attempt to remove more than 80 percent of the natural curl.Thoroughly rinse the chemical relaxer from the hair. Failure to rinse properly can cause excessive skin irritation and hair breakage.Use a normalizing lotion to restore the hair and scalp to their normal acidic pH.
75Relaxer Safety Precautions (continued) Use neutralizing shampoo with color indicator to confirm restored pH.Use conditioner and wide-tooth comb to eliminate excessive stretching when combing tangles.Do not use hot irons or excessive heat on chemically relaxed hair.Use a neutralizing shampoo with a color indicator to guarantee that the hair and scalp have been restored to their normal pH.Use a conditioner and wide-tooth comb to eliminate excessive stretching when combing out tangles.Do not use hot irons or excessive heat on chemically relaxed hair.
76Practical Procedures Virgin Relaxer – Hydroxide Retouch Relaxer – HydroxideSoft-Curl PermanentPRACTICAL PROCEDURESNOTE: Explain to students when and where the Practical Class will occur (perhaps now). Tell them that you will hand out procedure sheets for each of the following procedures and that they will follow along as you review. They will put away the procedure sheets during the actual demonstration (performed either by you or by the applicable Milady DVD to ensure consistency between demonstrations).NOTE: Explain that the application procedures are the same for thio and hydroxide relaxers, but that the procedure is different for a virgin application and a retouch application.
77Summary and ReviewName the structures of and purpose for each of the hair’s layers.What are the chemical actions that take place during permanent waving?SUMMARY AND REVIEWHair structure has a significant impact on the physical and chemical actions that occur in permanent waving. Proper hair and scalp analysis, as well as a thorough client consultation, must be completed prior to giving a perm service. Hair condition, texture, length, porosity, elasticity, and so forth will affect the rod size and products you choose for perming. Depending on the client’s desired results, you will choose one of many products and wrapping patterns. One of the best ways for you to obtain control of the texture of your client’s overly curly hair is through the use of chemical relaxers. Products used to relax overly curly hair are formulated with sodium hydroxide, ammonium thioglycolate (thio), or acid-based relaxers. Sodium hydroxide is used most often. In this lesson, you have learned that thorough hair and scalp examination and evaluation is critical prior to giving any type of chemical service, including chemical relaxers. You must place the client’s safety first and foremost. In addition, thorough analysis will aid you in determining which type and what strength of product to use on the client’s hair. The strand test prior to the service is a crucial and integral part of the service. It will let you know how long the product can remain on the hair before desired results are achieved or damage will occur. Chemical relaxing can be done routinely and safely as long as the stylist is careful to follow prescribed procedures, follow the manufacturer’s directions, and perform frequent test curls during the service to prevent overprocessing. The speed attained in applying relaxer product is very important in this service. Extensive practice using mock products will be of great benefit to you as a student to ensure that you can apply relaxing chemicals to the hair with sufficient speed to eliminate damage to the hair. It is important to review, remember, and practice all the safety precautions identified for these services and to remember never to relax the hair more than 80%.1.Name the structures of and purpose for each of the hair’s layers.Answer: The cuticle is the tough exterior layer of the hair. It surrounds the inner layers and protects the hair from damage. Texture chemicals must penetrate through the cuticle to their target in the cortex in order to be effective.The cortex is the middle layer of the hair, located directly beneath the cuticle layer. The cortex is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair. Breaking the side bonds of the cortex makes it possible to change the natural wave pattern of the hair.The medulla is the innermost layer of the hair and is often called the pith, or core, of the hair. The medulla does not play a role in chemical texture services and may be missing in fine hair.2. What are the chemical actions that take place during permanent waving?Answer: A disulfide bond joins the sulfur atoms in two adjacent polypeptide chains. Permanent wave solution breaks a disulfide bond by adding a hydrogen atom to each of its sulfur atoms. The sulfur atoms attach to the hydrogen from the permanent waving solution, breaking their attachment to each other. Once the disulfide bond is broken, the polypeptide chains can form into their new curled shape. Reduction breaks disulfide bonds and oxidation reforms them.
78Summary and Review (continued) What is the difference between an alkaline wave and a true acid wave?Why do permanent waves need to be neutralized?How do thio relaxers straighten the hair?How do hydroxide relaxers straighten the hair?What is curl re-forming and what is it best used for?3. What is the difference between an alkaline wave and a true acid wave?Answer: An alkaline wave has a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, uses ATG as the reducing agent, and processes at room temperature without the addition of heat.True acid waves have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process. GMTG, which has a low pH, is the active ingredient. Although a lower pH tends to cause less damage to the hair, acid waves process more slowly, may require the added heat of a hair dryer, and do not usually produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves.4. Why do permanent waves need to be neutralized?Answer: Neutralization performs two important functions:Any waving solution that remains in the hair is deactivated (neutralized).Disulfide bonds that were broken by the waving solution are rebuilt.5. How do thio relaxers straighten the hair?Answer: Thio relaxers break disulfide bonds and soften hair. After enough bonds are broken, the hair is straightened into its new shape.6. How do hydroxide relaxers straighten the hair?Answer: Through lanthionization, hydroxide relaxers remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond and convert it into a lanthionine bond. A disulfide bond consists of two bonded sulfur atoms. Lanthionine bonds contain only one sulfur atom. The disulfide bonds that are broken by hydroxide relaxers are broken permanently, and can never be re-formed.7. What is curl re-forming and what is it best used for?Answer: Curl re-forming, also called a soft-curl permanent, uses a combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent when wrapping hair on large rods to make the existing curl larger and looser.
79You have completed one unit of study toward course completion. Congratulations!You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.