2 “The only thing that makes life possible is permanent, intolerable uncertainty, not knowing what comes next”Ursula K. Le Guin
3 ObjectivesIdentify principles of color theory and relate them to haircolorExplain level and tone and their role in formulating haircolorList four basic categories of haircolor, explain their chemical effect on hair, and give examples of their useExplain the action of lightenersLEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)Did you know that qualified hair colorists make more money and are in more demand than any other specialists in the field of cosmetology. It’s also been determined that 7 out of 10 professionals claim that they are least comfortable with haircoloring of all the services they provide. Hopefully, as we study the unit of hair color, we will be able to overcome your fears of haircoloring and you will be able to face these services with enthusiasm and excitement over the money you are going to earn. Think about how much more detail the client’s face has after the hair has been colored; the eyes stand out more, the cheek bones are more defined, and the complexion appears more radiant. That’s a lot to become enthused about.Hair coloring is logically and systematically performed. It is not trial and error, even though it was considered to have been so in the past; it is both a science and an art. Fine-tuning your skills and performing this service with honesty and clarity will serve you well as a professional cosmetologist. Haircoloring includes the processes of:Hair lightening or decolorizing involves diffusing natural or artificial color from hair. Hair lightening involves decolorizing the natural pigment to prepare the hair for final color and decolorizing natural or artificial pigment to the desired color.You will find it interesting to know that statistics show that clients who have haircuts only stay with their stylist for an average of 2 years, while clients who receive color services stay with their stylist for 8 years! Loyal clients mean higher income.Before you can begin your skills practice, however, it’s important for you to understand some underlying principles of the color wheel, color theory, and color levels. We’re going to cover those important elements in today’s lesson.Depositing color on natural hair color.Depositing color on previously colored hair.Depositing color on hair that has been lightened.Lightening and depositing color in one step.
4 Why Do People Color Their Hair? Cover up or blend gray hairEnhance existing haircolorCreate a fashion or self expression statementCorrect unwanted tonesAccentuate a particular haircutHAIRCOLOR SERVICESWHY PEOPLE COLOR THEIR HAIRThe client consultation will help you determine why a client wants to color his/her hair and what products and services are appropriate.To cover up or blend gray hair. Gray hair is considered to be unpigmented.To enhance an existing haircolor.To create a fashion statement or statement of self-expression.To correct unwanted tones. These tones may have been caused by environmental exposure such as the sun or chlorine in swimming pools.To accentuate a particular haircut.
5 Hair Structure Cuticle Cortex Medulla HAIR FACTS: The structure of the hair will affect quality and ultimate success of a haircolor service.HAIR STRUCTURE: We discussed hair structure in depth when we covered Chapter 9. We will do a quick review here to get everyone up to speed. See Figure 19-2.Cuticle: The outermost layer of hair; protects the interior cortex and contributes up to 20% of overall strength of hair.Cortex: The middle layer; gives hair strength and elasticity; contributes about 80% to the overall strength of hair. It contains natural pigment called melanin. Melanin granules are scattered between cortex cells like chips in a chocolate chip cookie.Medulla. This is the innermost layer, which is sometimes absent from hair. This plays a very minor role in haircoloring.
6 Texture Coarse Medium Fine TEXTURE: This is determined by the individual hair strand diameter.Coarse — large diameterMedium — medium diameterFine — small diameter
7 Density Number of hairs per square inch Refers to hair thickness DENSITY: The number of hairs per square inch on the head. We have often referred to this as how thick our hair is. Density will affect haircolor application to ensure proper and complete coverage.
8 Porosity Low porosity Average porosity High porosity Test for porosity POROSITY: This is the ability of the hair to absorb moisture. Porous hair accepts haircolor faster. Porous hair will permit darker color more than less porous hair.Low porosity. Cuticle is tight; hair is resistant and requires longer processing time.Average porosity. Cuticle is slightly raised and processes in an average amount of time.High porosity. Cuticle is lifted. Hair is overporous and takes color quickly. Color tends to fade more quickly, as well.Test for porosity. Take a strand of several hairs from four different areas of the head: the front hairline, the temple, the crown, and the nape. Hold strand securely with one hand and slide thumb and forefinger of the other hand from ends to scalp.If hair feels smooth, cuticle is compact, dense, and hard and means the hair has low porosity. If you feel roughness, it has average porosity. If it feels very rough, dry, or breaks, it has high porosity.ACTIVITY: Ask for student volunteers to come forward and check each other’s hair porosity. Discuss findings.
9 Natural Hair Color Melanin in the cortex Eumelanin Pheomelanin Contributing pigmentNATURAL HAIR COLOR: Learning to identify natural hair color is an important step in becoming a good hair colorist. Natural hair ranges from black to dark brown to red; from dark blond to light blond.MELANIN IN THE CORTEXCONTRIBUTING PIGMENT: This is the pigment that lies under the natural hair color.The foundation of haircoloring is based on modifying this pigment with haircolor to create new pigment.Eumelanin. Melanin that gives black and brown color to hair.Pheomelanin. This melanin gives blond and red colors to hair. Natural hair contains both eumelanin and pheomelanin.
10 The Level System Unit of measurement Identifies lightness or darkness Arranged on scale of 1 to 101 being darkest10 being lightestTHE LEVEL SYSTEM: Level is the unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness of a color. Colorists use the Level System to analyze the lightness or darkness of a hair color. Levels are arranged on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the darkest and 10 being the lightest.HINT: The names of natural haircolor levels may vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The important thing is to be able to identify the degrees of lightness to darkness at each level.
11 Tone - Intensity Tone or hue is balance of color WarmCoolIntensity refers to strength of color toneTONE: The term tone or hue is the balance of color. Tone is used to describe the warmth or coolness of a color.INTENSITYNOTE TO EDUCATOR: The information on intensity is not found in the textbook. This refers to the strength of a color tone. Intensity is described as mild, medium, or strong. Strawberry blond, copper brown, and bright orange are various intensities of red shades.ACTIVITY: Have students complete the following activity:The missing primary color in this activity is what you would use to neutralize the unwanted tone. Find the missing primary to neutralize the following:TONE MISSING PRIMARYOrange ?Green ?Violet ?ANSWERS: To neutralize orange, use blue; to neutralize green, use red; to neutralize violet, use yellow.Warm tones. Look lighter than their actual level. Are golden, orange, red, and yellow. Described as auburn, amber, copper, strawberry, and bronze.Cool tones. Deeper than their actual level. Are blue, green, and violet. Described as smoky or ash.
12 Identifying Natural Level Crown areaMatch swatchesCompare to hair strandDetermine levelGray hairIDENTIFYING NATURAL LEVEL AND TONE: The color wheel and haircolor swatch books are a great help in identifying natural haircolor levels.Take 1/2" square section in crown area and hold up from scalp, allowing light to pass through. See Figure 19-6.Use swatches and find a match for the hair section. Remember, you are trying to determine depth level (darkness or lightness). Do not part or hold hair flat against scalp. See Figure 19-7.Move swatch from scalp area along hair strand.Determine natural hair color level. Use natural lighting whenever possible; artificial lights affect your perception of natural hair color, particularly fluorescent light, which distorts color drastically.Gray hair is normally associated with aging; heredity is also a factor. Gray hair requires special attention in formulating haircolor. We will talk more about this later.
13 Color Theory Base colors Violet Blue Red-orange Gold COLOR THEORY: Color is a form of light energy. Remember that all the colors we can see are contained in the visible spectrum of light.BASE COLORS: A base color is the predominant tonality of an existing color. It influences the final color result.Violet base color will deliver cool results and minimize unwanted yellow.Blue base color will minimize orange tones.Red-orange base will create bright, warm results.Gold bases create gold haircolor from brunettes to light blonds.
14 Law of ColorTHE LAW OF COLOR: This is a system of understanding color relationships. The same combination renders the same results:Refer to the Color Wheel found on pages 483 and 484.Equal parts of red and blue always make violet.Equal parts of blue and yellow always make green.Equal parts of yellow and red always make orange.
15 Primary Colors Blue Red Yellow PRIMARY COLORS: These are pure colors that cannot be achieved from a mixture.Blue, red, yellow. These are the three primary colors.Predominance of blue. Cool-toned colors.Predominance of red. Warm-toned colors. See Figure 19-9.Blue. Strongest of primary colors and the only cool primary color. It brings depth or darkness to colors when it is added.Red. The medium primary color. Red added to blue-based colors will cause them to appear lighter. Red added to yellow colors will cause them to become darker.Yellow. The faintest primary color. When added to other colors, the resulting color is lighter and brighter in appearance.Black. When all three colors are present in equal proportions, the resulting color is black.Relative proportions of primary colors. Neutral brown has primary colors in the following proportions: blue - B, red - RR, yellow - YYY.
16 Secondary Colors Green Orange Violet SECONDARY COLORS: Color obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors.Green, orange, violet. Green is an equal combination of blue and yellow; orange is an equal combination of red and yellow; and violet is an equal combination of blue and red. See Figure
17 Tertiary Colors Blue-green Blue-violet Red-orange TERTIARY COLORS: These are intermediate colors achieved by mixing a secondary color with its neighboring primary color on the color wheel in EQUAL amounts.ACTIVITY: Using play dough, have the students complete the activity found in the textbook. Using the primary colors, have them mix the play dough to create secondary and tertiary colors. Refer to FigureBlue-green, blue-violet, red-orange, yellow-orange, and yellow-green. See Figure
18 Complementary Colors Blue and orange Red and green Yellow and violet COMPLEMENTARY COLORS: These are a primary and secondary colors positioned opposite each other on the color wheel.Blue and orangeRed and greenYellow and violetComplementary colors neutralize each other. Understanding complementary colors helps you make haircolor decisions to accomplish your desired goal. See Figure
19 Categories of Haircolor NonoxidativeTemporarySemipermanentOxidativeDemipermanentPermanentTYPES OF HAIRCOLOR: The term haircolor is a professional, industry-coined term referring to artificial haircolor products and services. Hair color (two words) is the color of hair created by nature.CATEGORIES: All four categories require a patch test to determine allergic reactions except temporary haircolor.TemporarySemipermanentDemipermanentPermanentTemporarySemipermanentDemipermanentPermanent
20 Hair Lightening Diffuses natural or artificial pigment Developer is oxidizing agentContains alkalizing ingredientHAIR LIGHTENING: Often referred to as “bleaching” or “decolorizing.”Diffuses natural or artificial color pigment from hair.Contains developer. Developer is the oxidizing agent.Also contains an alkalizing ingredient:Raise cuticle so that haircolor can penetrate.Increase the formation of dye.Trigger lightening action of peroxide. When haircolor and developer combine, the peroxide becomes alkaline. As a result, melanin is diffused and lightening occurs.
21 Temporary Color Does not penetrate cuticle layer Coats hair shaft Neutralizes unwanted tonesAvailable in variety of colors and productsTEMPORARY COLOR: See FigurePigment molecules are large. Do not penetrate the cuticle layer.Coat the hair shaft only. Temporary color creates a physical change in the hair, not a chemical change.Good for neutralizing unwanted tones.Available in a variety of colors and products.Color rinses. Applied with each shampoo to add color.Colored mousses and gels. Used for slight color and for dramatic effects.Hair mascara. Used for dramatic effects.Spray-on haircolor. Easy to apply, used for special effects.Color-enhancing shampoos. Used to brighten, impart slight color, and eliminate unwanted tones.
22 Semipermanent Lasts several shampoos Penetrates hair shaft; stains cuticle layerFades with each shampooNon-oxidationSEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR: See FigureLasts through several shampoos, depending upon the hair’s porosity.Pigment molecules are smaller, partially penetrating the hair shaft and staining the cuticle layer.Diffuse out of hair during shampooing, which causes fading with each shampoo.Lasts 6 to 8 shampoos; does not require maintenance of new growth.A non-oxidation haircolor; is not mixed with peroxide and only deposits color.Many can be used right out of the bottle.
23 Demipermanent Deposits color; does not lift Ideal for: Covering unpigmented hairRefreshing faded permanent colorDepositing tonal changesCorrective colorReverse highlightingDEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR: Also called deposit-only haircolor.Deposits color; does not lift.Generally imparts vivid color results.Ideal for covering unpigmented hair, refreshing faded permanent color, depositing tonal changes, corrective color, and reverse highlighting.
24 Demipermanent Darkens haircolor Causes little or no damage Available in gel, cream, or liquidDarkens haircolorCauses little or no damage. Generally positioned as gentle and mild due to their low ammonia/no ammonia formula.Often used exclusively from mid-hair shaft to ends while permanent color is applied to base of hair shaft. This fights the buildup effect that permanent color can have on the hair and is less aggressive, thus, less damaging. See FigureAvailable as a gel, cream, or liquid. Demipermanent color requires a patch test.
25 Permanent Matches, lightens, covers Contains ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxideContains aniline derivativesRemoves natural pigment while adding artificial colorPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR: Permanent haircolor can lighten and deposit color at the same time. They are more alkaline than no-lift deposit-only colors. They are mixed with a developer (hydrogen peroxide) and remain in the hair shaft until the new growth of hair occurs.Used to match, lighten, and cover gray hair. This type of haircolor is considered best for covering gray.Contains ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxide. They require a patch test.Contains aniline derivatives. These are uncolored dye precursors that are very small compounds that can diffuse into the hair shaft.Analine derivatives combine with H2O2 to form larger, permanent tint molecules. These molecules are trapped within the cortex and cannot be shampooed out.Simultaneously remove natural pigment while adding artificial color. This action results in a natural-looking color. See Figures andBest product for covering gray hair.
26 Natural Haircolors From leaves or bark of plants No lightening Limited shade rangeProfessional products cannot be applied overNATURAL HAIRCOLORS: Also known as vegetable haircolors such as henna.Obtained from leaves or bark of plants.No lightening action occurs. Color results tend to be weak; process is lengthy and messy.Shade ranges are limited. Available in black, chestnut, and auburn tones.Many professional products cannot be applied over natural haircolors.
27 Metallic Haircolor Contains metal salts Facilitates progressive buildupRequires daily applicationMETALLIC HAIRCOLOR: Also called gradual colors.Contains metal salts.Facilitates a progressive buildup. This ultimately creates a dull, metallic, unnatural appearance.Requires daily application; historically marketed to men.
28 Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidizing agents or catalysts pH between 2.5 and 4.5 H2O2VolumeLower volume, less liftHigher volume, greater liftHYDROGEN PEROXIDE DEVELOPERS: Developers are oxidizing agents that, when mixed with an oxidative haircolor, supply the necessary oxygen gas to develop color molecules and change hair color.The majority of haircolor products use 10, 20, 30, or 40 volume hydrogen peroxide for proper color development. Store in cool, dark, dry place. 20 Volume is used for less lightening; 30 volume for additional lift; 40 volume for high-lift colors.Also called oxidizing agents or catalysts.Have a pH between 2.5 and 4.5.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the most common developer.Volume of developers; vary in strengths.Lower volume, less liftHigher volume, greater lift
29 Purpose of Lighteners Lighten prior to color application Lighten to a desired shadeBrighten and lighten existing shadeLighten only certain parts of hairLighten dark natural or color-treated levelsLIGHTENERS: Lighteners lighten hair by dispersing, dissolving, and decolorizing the natural hair pigment. Hydrogen peroxide serves as the oxidizing agent and begins to release oxygen when mixed with lightener.• Purposes of lighteners:• Lighten prior to color application.• Lighten to a desired shade.• Brighten and lighten existing shade.• Lighten only certain parts of hair.• Lighten dark natural or color-treated levels.
30 Decolorizing Process Hair goes through up to 10 stages THE 10 STAGES OF THE DECOLORIZING PROCESS: Hair goes through as many as 10 stages of color as it lightens. See Figure The amount of change depends on how much pigment the hair has, the strength of the lightening product, and the length of time it is processed.Dark red-brownRed-brownRedRed-orangeOrangeOrange-goldGoldYellow-goldYellowPale yellowSee Figure
31 Contribution to Underlying Pigment Decolorize to appropriate levelApply new colorUse toner to achieve pale colorNever lift past pale yellowCONTRIBUTION TO UNDERLYING PIGMENT: The underlying pigment remaining after decolorizing is what allows the colorist to create the desired final result.First, hair is decolorized to appropriate level.Second, new color is applied to deposit desired color. Natural pigment remains in hair and contributes to artificial color that is added. Lightening to correct stage is essential to a beautiful, controlled, desired result.Toners. Semipermanent, demipermanent, and permanent haircolor products are used primarily on prelightened hair to achieve a pale and delicate color. Toner is applied to lightest degree of contributing pigment after decolorizing. Goal is to create the correct degree of contributing pigment as the foundation for the final result. See FigureNever lift past pale yellow stage to white with lightener. This will cause excessive damage.Hair will become mushy.Hair will lose its elasticity.Hair will be harsh and brittle when dry.Hair often suffers breakage and won’t accept toner.The baby-blond look can be created by lightening to pale yellow and neutralizing the unwanted undertone with a toner.
32 Summary and Review List primary, secondary, and tertiary colors Name two types of melaninSUMMARY AND REVIEWWe have learned that haircoloring follows the law of color, which is a system of understanding relationships of color. The relationships have been tested over and over and have proven to be true. All colors are ultimately created from three pure or fundamental pigments: blue, yellow, and red. Those three colors can be mixed to create secondary colors, which can then be mixed with the adjacent primary color to create tertiary colors. We have also discussed how haircolor is generally classified by its ability to last. Temporary color is just that; it is removed by shampooing. Semipermanent and demipermanent color lasts somewhat longer than temporary haircolor and bridges the gap to permanent color. We have also discovered that the lasting ability of any hair product will be directly affected by the hair’s porosity.Let’s review.List the primary, secondary, and tertiary colors.ANSWER: The primary colors are blue, red, and yellow. The secondary colors are green, orange, and violet. The tertiary colors are blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange, yellow-orange, and yellow-green.Name the two types of melanin.ANSWER: Eumelanin is the melanin that gives black and brown color to hair.Pheomelanin is the melanin found in red hair. Very dark hair and most brunettes contain this pigment. Blonde hair contains a small amount of pheomelanin.
33 Summary and Review Define level, tone, and intensity What are the classifications of haircolor?Define level, tone, and intensity.ANSWER: Level is the unit of measurement used to identify the lightness or darkness of a color. The term tone, or tonality, is used to describe the warmth or coolness of a color. Intensity refers to the strength of a color tone and is described as mild, medium, or strong.What are the classifications of haircolor? Briefly describe each one.ANSWER:Temporary haircolor. Makes only a physical change, not a chemical change, in the hair shaft, and no patch test is required; pigment molecules are large and do not penetrate the cuticle layer, allowing only a coating action that is removed by shampooing.Traditional semipermanent haircolor. Formulated to last through several shampoos; pigment molecules are small enough to partially penetrate the hair shaft and stain the cuticle layer but are also small enough to diffuse out of the hair during shampooing and thus fade with each shampoo; does not lighten the hair, so there is no significant color change.Demipermanent (deposit-only) haircolor. Similar in nature to semipermanent haircolor but longer lasting; formulated to deposit but not lift (lighten) color; has a smaller tint molecule and is able to penetrate the hair shaft. Permanent haircolor is mixed with a developer (hydrogen peroxide) and remains in the hair shaft until the new growth of hair occurs. Used to match, lighten, and cover gray hair. Generally contains ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxide
34 Summary and Review Why is a patch test important? What is a strand test?What is the role of ammonia in a haircolor formula?What is the role of hydrogen peroxide in a haircolor formula?Why is a patch test important?ANSWER: A patch test is used to determine whether a client has any allergies or sensitivities to the haircolor mixture.What is a strand test?ANSWER: A test taken on a strand of hair that will tell you how the hair will react to the color you have formulated and how long it will take to process.What is the role of ammonia in a haircolor formula?ANSWER: The role of ammonia (the alkalizing ingredient) is to open the cuticle of the hair fiber so the tint can penetrate; facilitate the formation of tints within the hair fiber (also referred to as the oxidation reaction); bring about the lightening action of peroxide.What is the role of hydrogen peroxide in a haircolor formula?ANSWER: Hydrogen peroxide is the most commonly used developer, an oxidizing agent that, when mixed with an oxidative haircolor, supplies the necessary oxygen gas to develop color molecules and create a change in hair color.What are the four key questions you ask when formulating a haircolor?ANSWER:What is the natural level? Is there any gray hair?What is the client’s desired level and tone?Are contributing pigments (undertones) revealed?What colors should be mixed to get the desired result?
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