The Structure of Hair Cuticle: Tough exterior layer of hair. Cortex: Middle layer of hair. Medulla: Innermost layer of the hair, often called pith or core of the hair.
The Structure of Hair Importance of pH in Texture Services pH scale: Measures acidity and alkalinity of a substance by measuring the quantity of hydrogen ions it contains. Natural pH of hair is between 4.5 and 5.5. Chemical texturizers: Raise the pH of the hair to an alkaline state in order to soften and swell the hair shaft.
The Structure of Hair Basic Building Blocks of Hair Amino acids Peptide bonds (end bonds) Polypeptide chains Keratin proteins
The Structure of Hair Basic Building Blocks of Hair Side bonds Disulfide bonds Salt bonds Hydrogen bonds
Permanent Waving Permanent waving: Two-step process whereby hair undergoes a physical change chemical change. –Always perform an elasticity test before perming hair.
Permanent Waving Perm Wrap Perm wrap: Wet set on perm rods instead of rollers. Shape and type of curl are determined by shape and type of rod and wrapping method used.
Permanent Waving Types of Rods Concave rod Straight rod Soft bender rod Loop rod (circle rod)
Permanent Waving End Papers End papers: Also end wraps; absorbent papers used to control ends of hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods. –Double flat wrap –Single flat wrap –Bookend wrap
Permanent Waving Sectioning for a Perm All perm wraps begin by sectioning the hair into panels. Base sections: Subsections of panels into which the hair is divided for perm wrapping.
Permanent Waving Base Placement Base placement: Refers to position of rod in relation to its base section. –On-base placement –Half off-base placement –Off-base placement
Permanent Waving Base Direction Base direction: Refers to angle at which rod is positioned on head: horizontally, vertically, or diagonally.
Permanent Waving The Chemistry of Permanent Waving Alkaline permanent waving solutions soften and swell the hair, opening cuticle and permitting solution to penetrate into cortex.
Permanent Waving Reduction Reaction In the cortex, waving solution breaks disulfide bonds through reduction. Reduction reaction in permanent waving is due to the addition of hydrogen. Thioglycolic acid: Most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions. Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG): Active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.
Permanent Waving Perms for Men/Safety Precautions for Permanent Waving Male clients are looking for the texture, fullness, style, and low maintenance a perm provides. Perm safety –Protect client’s clothing. –Do not give to clients who have had allergic reactions. –Examine scalp before service. –Do not perm damaged or relaxed hair.
Permanent Waving Safety Precautions/Metallic Salts Perm safety (cont.) –Test for metallic salts. –Use a barrier cream. –Follow manufacturer’s guidelines. –Keep waving lotion away from client’s eyes. –Wear gloves. –Do not safe leftover solutions. Some home haircoloring products contain metallic salts that are not compatible with permanent waving. –Test for metallic salts before perming.
Chemical Hair Relaxers Extremely Curly Hair Chemical hair relaxing: Process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form. Extremely curly hair grows in long twisted spirals, or coils.
Chemical Hair Relaxers Thio Relaxers/Japanese Thermal Straighteners Thio relaxers: Use same ATG used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and higher pH. Japanese thermal straighteners: Also thermal reconditioning or TR; combines use of a thio relaxer with flat ironing.
Chemical Hair Relaxers Hydroxide Relaxers Hydroxide relaxers: Very strong alkalis with a pH over 13. Lanthionization: Process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair. Types: –Metal hydroxide relaxers –Lye-based relaxers –No-lye relaxers
Chemical Hair Relaxers Low-pH Relaxers/Base and No-Base Relaxers Sulfites and bisulfites are sometimes used as low-pH hair relaxers. Base cream: Also protective base cream; oily cream used to protect skin and scalp during hair relaxing. Base relaxers: Require application of protective base cream to entire scalp prior to application of relaxer. No-base relaxers: Do not require application of protective base cream.
Chemical Hair Relaxers Relaxer Strengths Chemical hair relaxers are available in three strengths: mild, regular, and super. Periodic strand testing during processing will help you tell when the hair is sufficiently relaxed.
Chemical Hair Relaxers Hydroxide Relaxer Procedures Virgin relaxer application: Used for hair that has not had previous chemical texture services. Retouch relaxer application: Used for hair that has had previous chemical texture services. Texturizing or retexturizing service: Uses a hydroxide relaxer to reduce curl pattern by degrees. Normalizing lotions: Conditioners that restore hair’s natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer.
Chemical Hair Relaxers Keratin Straightening Treatments Keratin straightening treatments: Contain silicone polymers and formalin, or similar ingredients, which release formaldehyde gas when heated to high temperatures. –Eliminate up to 95 percent of frizz and curl and last three to five months. –Not usually appropriate for extremely curly, tightly coiled hair.
Curl Re-Forming (Soft Curl Permanents) Safety Precautions for Hair Relaxing and Curl Re-Forming Soft curl permanent: Combination of thio relaxer and thio permanent wrapped on large rods to make existing curl larger and looser. Safety: –Perform a consultation and hair analysis. –Examine the scalp for abrasions. –Keep accurate client records. –Have client sign a release. –Do not apply hydroxide relaxer on hair previously treated with a thio relaxer.
Curl Re-Forming (Soft Curl Permanents) Safety Precautions Safety (cont.) –Do not apply thio relaxer or soft curl perm on hair that has been treated with hydroxide relaxer. –Do not chemically relax hair that has been treated with a metallic dye. –Do not relax damaged hair. –Do not shampoo prior to application of hydroxide relaxer (scalp must be dry). –Apply protective base cream. –Wear gloves. –Protect client’s eyes. –Perform strand tests. –Avoid scratching the scalp. –Do not attempt to remove more than 80 percent of natural curl. –Thoroughly rinse chemical relaxer from hair. –Use normalizing lotion and neutralizing shampoo. –Use conditioner and wide-tooth comb. –Do not use hot irons or excessive heat on chemically relaxed hair.