Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

You will learn the differences in alkaline and acid perms & chemistry of perms.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "You will learn the differences in alkaline and acid perms & chemistry of perms."— Presentation transcript:

1 You will learn the differences in alkaline and acid perms & chemistry of perms

2 Chemistry of Permanent Waving o Alkaline perm solutions softens & swells the hair o Raises the cuticle & permits the solution to penetrate into the cortex o Once in the cortex, the solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called reduction o Involves either the addition of hydrogen or the removal of oxygen o Reduction reaction o Disulfide bond joins a sulfur atom on one polypeptide chain with a second sulfur atom on a neighboring polypeptide chain o Perm solution breaks a disulfide bond by adding a hydrogen atom to each of the sulfur atoms in the disulfide bond o Sulfur atoms attach to the hydrogen from the perm solution, breaking their attachment to each other o Once the disulfide bond is broken, the polypeptide chains are able to slip into their new curled shape

3 Chemistry of Permanent Waving o Reducing agents o Thiol compounds o Commonly referred to simply as thio / thioglycolic acid o Colorless liquid / strong unpleasant odor o Provides the hydrogen that causes the reduction reaction in perm solutions o Strength is determined by the concentration of thio o Stronger perms have a higher concentration of thio w/ a greater number of hydrogen atoms o More hydrogen atoms are available, more disulfide bonds are broken

4 Chemistry of Permanent Waving Thioglycolic acid Acid, do not swell the hair or penetrate into the cortex Manufacturers add an alkalizing agent Ammonia is added and produces a new chemical called ammonium thioglycolate, which is alkaline ATG is main active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline perms Degree of alkalinity (pH) Second factor in overall strength of perm solution pH ( alkalinity ) of the perm solution should correspond to the resistance, strength, and porosity of the cuticle layer

5 Alkaline Waving / Cold waving Reforming or waving lotion Wrapping procedures ProcessingRinsing & or blotting Bonding / neutralizing Formulated w/ thioglycolic acid or its derivatives & ammonium hydroxide Wrapped without tension Hair starts to process immediately upon application of lotion Easier to rinse due to swollen cuticle 3 functions Lowers pH of hair Shrinks swollen hair shaft Restores disulfide bonds Shorten processing time, ammonium hydroxide is added This allows space for the hair to swell Curl begins to form immediately also Essential to rinse all lotion from hair Oxidation process which changes the cysteines back to cystine Softens & swells the hair fibers, making it easier for the thio acid to penetrate the hair structure & break disulfide bonds This swelling creates the necessary tension Greater danger of hair damage if not watched during processing Never rock and roll the rods, only blot to remove excess moisture Never leave the bonding/neutralizer on longer than indicated by the manufacturer High alkalinity pH 9.0 to 9.6 Shorter processing time & higher pH

6 Acid waving / Warm waving Reforming or waving lotion Wrapping procedures ProcessingRinsing & or blotting Bonding / neutralizing Formulated with thioglycolic acid or its derivatives and water, Glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG) It is essential that the hair be wrapped with firm, even tension Heat is applied to speed penetration of chemicals Essential to remove all reforming solution completely before bonding 3 functions Lowers pH of hair Shrinks swollen hair shaft Restores disulfide bonds Speed is sacrificed for a more controlled curl & less damage Some acid wave will have ATG, ammonium thioglycolate as a reducing agent Tension along w/reforming lotion & heat, are all necessary to break the disulfide bonds Longer processing time gives more control over the curl & less damage Because hair is not swollen as it is in alkaline waving Oxidation process which changes the cysteines back to cystine True acid waves have a pH of 4.5 to 7.0, processed with heat Acid -balanced waves have a pH of 7.8 to 8.2, process at room temperature It is harder & takes longer to adequately remove solution & odor Never leave the bonding/neutralizer on longer than indicated by the manufacturer Does not have the large pH span to close or excessive swelling to reduce

7 Exothermic Waves Produces heat Creates an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the solution & speeds up the processing Activator is added immediately before use, which causes the increase in perm solution The increase in temperature causes a chemical reaction, which shortens the processing time 3 components: Solution – ( reductiton ) Activator Neutralizer ( rebonding ) Solution contains thio, just as in a cold wave Activator contains oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide Neutralizer contains hydrogen peroxide, lanolin & other special ingredients Stops the action of the perm and hardens the hair to its new form Acid solution

8 Endothermic waves & Ammonia-free waves Endothermic waves Absorbs heat from its surroundings Activated by an outside heat source Hood-type dryer Will not process properly at room temperature Most true acid waves are endothermic & require heat of a hair dryer Ammonia-free waves Examples of alkanolamines as a substitute for ammonia Aminomethylpropanol (AMP) Monoethanolamine (MEA) Do not smell as strong Alkaline & just as damaging

9 Thio-free & low –pH waves Thio-free waves Other ingredients than ATG Reducing agent Cysteamine Mercaptamine These thio substitutes are not technically ATG Can be just as damaging as thio perms Low-pH waves Sulfates, sulfites & bisulfites Low pH Not very popular Very weak & do not provide a firm curl Marketed as body waves or alternative waves

10 Perm Categories Perm typeActive ingredientProcessHair typeResultsAdvantage s Disadvantages Alkaline/cold wave pH: 9.0 to 9.6 Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) Room temperature Coarse, thick, or resistant Firm, strong curls Processes quickly at room temp Unpleasant ammonia odor,damage delicate hair Exothermic wave Ph:9.0 to 9.6 Ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) ExothermicCoarse, thick, or resistant Firm, strong curls Exothermic reaction causes solution to get hot Unpleasant ammonia odor,damage delicate hair True acid wave pH: 4.5 to 7.0 Glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG) EndothermicExtremely porous or very damaged Soft, weak curls Low pH produces minimal swelling Required heat,will not produce firm,strong curls Acid-balancced pH: 7.8 to 8.2 Glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG) Room temperature Porous or damaged Soft curlsMinimal swelling, processes at room temperature Repeated exposure causes allergic sensitivity in clients or stylist Ammonia-free wave pH: 7.0 to 9.6 Monoethanolamine (MEA) Aminomethylpropanol (AMP) Room temperature Porous to normal Medium to fine curls No unpleasant ammonia odor Overall strength varies w/ different manufacturers Thio-free wave pH: 7.0 to 9.6 Mercaptamine/ cysteamine Room temperature Porous to normal Medium to fine curls Gentler, depending on formula Overall strength varies w/ different manufacturers Low-pH wave pH: 6.5 to 7.0 Ammonium sulfite/ Ammonium bisulfite EndothermicNormal,fine, or damage Weak curl or body wave Minimal swelling Requires heat, weak curls

11 Summary A variety of permanent waves are available in salons today Depending on hair texture, density and porosity determines which perm to use; acid or alkaline


Download ppt "You will learn the differences in alkaline and acid perms & chemistry of perms."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google