2“The optimist sees opportunity in every danger; the pessimist sees danger in every opportunity” Winston Churchill
3Objectives List the 5 elements of hair design List the 5 principles of hair designIdentify different facial shapesDemonstrate how to design hairstyles to enhance or camouflage facial featuresExplain design considerations for menLEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)The art of dressing hair has been around for centuries and centuries. The beautification procedures that were used by various civilizations have been recorded on scrolls, in detailed paintings, and even on cave walls. Hairstyling, as we know it today, involves arranging the hair to complement the features of the client’s face, head shape, and body. You must be able to design a look that enhances the positive features while minimizing unflattering features. You will be able to do this once you have an understanding of the elements and principles of design.It is clearly in the styling unit of study where the student will learn the “art” in the art and science of cosmetology. In today’s lesson, we will focus on analysis and design more than on technique, which will come later.The most important thing to remember about the principles of hair design is that even though you may be able to create the most perfect cut, achieve a perfect chemical texture service, and formulate the most flattering color for a client, if he or she is not satisfied with the end result, that is, how he or she looks when leaving the salon, you will not have met your challenge as a professional cosmetologist. Very likely, the client will not return as well. So learning to create a design that flatters and satisfies the client is paramount to your success.
4The Inspiration Visual understanding Strong technique and skills INSPIRATION: Inspiration for design can come from anywhere at any time. It might be from a movie, a magazine, or a stranger.VISUAL UNDERSTANDING: You need to know which hairstyles work best with different face shapes. Learn from experience and grow.STRONG TECHNIQUE AND SKILLS: Don’t confine yourself to the basics; explore new possibilities and customize each client’s individual needs and style.
5Elements of Design – Lines HorizontalVerticalDiagonalCurvedELEMENTS OF DESIGNLINE: Lines create form, design, or movement; can be straight or curved.Horizontal. Parallel to floor or horizon. Create width; the eye follows the line from center out to ends.Vertical. Straight up and down; make a style appear longer and narrower; eye follows lines up and down.Diagonal. Positioned between horizontal and vertical; used for emphasis or to minimize facial features; also creates interest.Curved. Softens a design; can be large or small; full or partial circles; can be placed horizontally, vertically, or diagonally.
6Repeating Curved Lines Curved lines repeating in opposite directions create a wave
7Designing with Lines Single line Parallel lines DESIGNING WITH LINES Single line. Best for minimum care such as a one-length style.Parallel lines. Repeating lines in a style that is straight or curved. Repetition creates interest; finger wave is an example.
8Designing with Lines Contrasting lines Transitional lines Contrasting lines. Horizontal and vertical lines that meet at a 90-degree angle; create a hard edge; usually reserved for clients with a strong personality for a strong look.Transitional lines. Usually curved lines used to blend and soften horizontal and vertical lines.
9Designing with Lines Form Space FORM: The outline or silhouette of the style as seen from all angles. Form should be in proportion to shape of head and face, length and width of neck, and the shoulder line.SPACE: The area the style occupies. Also called volume. It’s three-dimensional as well having length, width, depth. May contain curls, curves, waves, straight hair, or a combination.
10Design Texture Straight hair Wavy hair Curly Extremely curly hair TEXTURE: Hair texture or wave patterns must be considered. Straight to curly hair reflects light in different ways. All hair has a natural wave pattern, which is described as straight, wavy, curly, or extremely curly. Straight hair reflects light better than other wave patterns, so it reflects the most light when it is cut to one length (12-13). Wavy hair can be combed into waves that create horizontal lines (12-14). Curly and extremely curly hair does not reflect much light and could be coarse to the touch. It creates a larger form than straight or wavy hair (12-15 and 12-16).
11Styling tools Chemicals Wave patterns Styling tools. Texture can be created with heat and/or wet styling techniques.Chemicals. Chemical wave pattern changes are considered permanent. Curly hair can be straightened; straight hair can be curled (Fig ).Designing with wave patterns. Use of many wave patterns creates a busy look; smooth wave patterns accent face and are good for narrowing a round head shape; curly wave patterns take attention away from face and might be used to soften square or rectangular features (Figs through 12-22).
12Color Color psychology Creating dimension with color Creating lines with colorColor selectionCOLORCOLOR PSYCHOLOGY: Can create texture and lines; can tie design elements together; can evoke certain reactions. Lighter colors seem youthful and exciting; darker colors may seem seductive and mysterious; warm colors tend to be soft; cooler colors are bold and dramatic.CREATING DIMENSION WITH COLOR: Light or warm colors create the illusion of volume. Dark or cool colors recede or move in toward head and create illusion of less volume. When colors that are warm and cool alternate with those that are light and dark, the illusion of dimension is created. See Figures andCREATING LINES WITH COLOR: Using lighter color, you can draw a line in direction you want eye to travel; can create interesting or dramatic accent. See FigureCOLOR SELECTION: Tone must be compatible with client’s skin tones. When using two or more colors, they should be within two levels of each other. If using high contrast colors, use one sparingly. See Figure
13Principles of Hair Design Proportion: Relationship between objects relative to their sizeBody proportionPRINCIPLES OF HAIR DESIGNPROPORTION: Relationship between objects relative to their size.Analogy. A 60" TV in a very small room; or a 13" TV in a large, 400 square foot game room. Hair style can be designed to correct out-of-proportion face shapes.Body proportion. Hair and body proportions must be compatible. Example: Large hips or broad shoulders, larger hairstyle. Hair should never be wider than center of shoulders. See Figures and
14Balance Symmetrical Asymmetrical BALANCE: Means harmony or proportion in styling; signifies the proper degree of height and width; can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Divide face into four equal parts. See Figure Where lines cross is central axis. If style is symmetrical, both sides are same distance from axis and same length and volume.Symmetrical balance. Design is similar on both sides; both are the same distance form the center, the same length, same volume (even if a different shape). See Figures toAsymmetrical balance. Features unequal proportions designed to balance facial features. Opposite sides are different lengths or volume; can be horizontal or diagonal. See Figures to
15RhythmRHYTHM: The regular, recurrent pattern of movement in a style; it can be fast or slow. Fast rhythm moves quickly (tight curls). Slow rhythm can be seen in larger shapings or long waves. See Figures and
16Emphasis Wave patterns Color Change in form Ornamentation EMPHASIS: The place the eye sees first. Eye then travels to the rest of the design. Emphasis created in several ways:• Wave patterns. See Figure• Color. See Figure• Change in form. See Figure• Ornamentation. See Figure
17Harmony The most important principle in hair design Form with interesting linesPleasing color and texturesBalance and rhythm to strengthen designHARMONY: The most important art principle. Means the orderly and pleasing arrangement of shapes and lines; holds all elements of the design together. A harmonious style is in proportion to the client’s facial and body structure.
18Creating Harmony Shape of head Features Body posture Influence of hair typesTextureCREATING HARMONY BETWEEN STYLE AND FACIAL STRUCTURE: Analysis of face shape, head shape, body shape, and features is critical to creating harmony in style.Consider:• Shape of head—front view (face shape), profile, and back view• Features (perfect and imperfect)• Body postureINFLUENCE OF HAIR TYPES: Hair type is based on two major characteristics: wave patterns and hair texture. Wave patterns are straight, wavy, curly, and extremely curly. Texture can be fine, medium, or coarse.
19Combinations of Hair Types Fine straight hairStraight medium hairStraight coarse hairWavy fine hairWavy medium hairWavy coarse hairCOMBINATIONS OF HAIR TYPESFine straight hair. Usually hugs head due to little or no body or volume. Styling aids and chemical services will be required to create the most flattering style.Straight medium hair. Offers more versatility; responds well to blow-drying; has good movement; responds well to rollers and thermal styling.Straight coarse hair. Hard to curl and carries more volume than first two types. Casts a wider silhouette and responds well to thermal styling; blow-drying may create too much volume unless flat brushes are used; chemical services may take longer.Wavy fine hair. Can appear fuller with appropriate cut and style such as layering; responds well to blow-drying and chemical services; can be straightened by blow-drying; diffusing will create fuller appearance.Wavy medium hair. Flexible; if diffused, could look curly; if blown dry, could look straight.Wavy coarse hair. Wide silhouette; chemical services like mild relaxers work well; educating client about at-home maintenance is crucial.
20Combinations of Hair Types Curly fine hairCurly medium hairCurly coarse hairVery curly fine hairExtremely curly medium hairExtremely curly coarse hairCurly fine hair. Avoid too much length, which separates and reveals scalp; responds well to mild relaxers and color; blow-drying may only work with short layers.Curly medium hair. Creates a wide silhouette; looks romantic if left natural; make sure weight line is flattering to client; responds well to relaxers and color. Curly coarse hair. Requires lots of heavy styling aids; can easily overwhelm client. Don’t cut too short.Very curly fine hair. Short is better; if left long, silhouette will be too wide and voluminous; responds well to chemical services, but take care with relaxers; hair pressing is alright if not overdone.Extremely curly medium hair. Silhouette can get very wide; relaxers work well to make the shape narrower; hair pressing and thermal styling are good options; if left natural, cropping close to head in a flattering shape is great for ease of styling and low maintenance.Extremely curly coarse hair. Silhouette will be way too wide without proper maintenance. Relaxing is recommended; if client does not want chemical services, try short, cropped layers.
21Facial Types Oval Round Square FACIAL TYPES: Face is divided into three zones; forehead to eyebrow, eyebrows to end of nose, and end of nose to bottom of chin.Oval facial type. 1.5 times longer than its width at brow. Forehead is slightly wider than chin. Any hairstyle will be suitable unless there are other factors such as a prominent nose, eyeglasses, abnormal profile, etc. See FigureRound facial type. Review contour and aims. FigSquare facial type. Review contour and aims. Fig
22Facial Types Triangular Oblong Diamond Inverted triangular Triangular facial type. Review contour and aims. FigOblong facial type. Review contour and aims. FigDiamond facial type. Review contour and aims. FigInverted triangular facial type. Also known as heart-shaped. Review contour and aims. Fig
23Facial Profiles Straight profile Convex profile Concave profile PROFILES: The profile is the outline of the face, head, or figure as seen from the side.Straight profile. Considered ideal; has slight curvature; all hairstyles are flattering with a straight profile. FigConvex profile. Receding forehead and chin. Calls for arrangement of curls or bangs over forehead. Keep style close to head at nape and move hair forward in the chin area. Figs andConcave profile. Has prominent forehead and chin with other features inward. Use soft styling at nape with an upward movement; do not build hair on forehead. Figs and
24Special Considerations Top third of faceMiddle third of faceLower third of faceSPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: Divide the face into thirds to complete analysis.• Top third of face. Review styling aims.• Middle third of face. Review styling aims.• Lower third of face. Review styling aims.
25Head Shapes Not all are round Design for volume and lack of volume HEAD SHAPES: Not all are round. Design for volume in areas that are flat or small and reduce volume in areas that are large or prominent. See Figure
26Wearing Eye Glasses Consider eyeglass arms Consider hair length around earSTYLING FOR EYE GLASSES: Eyeglasses have become a fashion accessory. Keep in mind that the arm can push the hair at the ear and cause it to stick out.
27Hair Parts and Fringe Triangular Diagonal Curved HAIR PARTS: Can be focal point for a hairstyle because eye is drawn to it. Parts should be clean and neat. Use natural part whenever possible.PARTINGS FOR FRINGETriangular. The basic parting for bang sections. See FigureDiagonal. Gives height to a round or square face and width to a long, thin face. See FigureCurved part. Used for receding hairline and high forehead. See Figure
28Style Parts Side parts Center parts Diagonal parts Zigzag parts Side parts. Used to direct hair across top of head, develop height on top, and make thin hair appear fuller. See FigureCenter parts. Classic; usually used for an oval face. Gives an oval illusion to wide and round faces; do not use with prominent noses. See FigureDiagonal parts. Used to create illusion of width or height in a style. See FigureZigzag parts. Create a dramatic effect in a style. See figure
29Designing for Men Styles Mustache and beard shapes DESIGNING FOR MEN STYLES: Should be flattering and appropriate for client’s career, hair type, and lifestyle.MUSTACHE AND BEARD SHAPES: Can discreetly disguise a facial flaw. See Figures and Facial hair should always appear well-groomed and flattering to the client, regardless of the current trend.CLIENT CONSULTATION ACTIVITY: Review the sample dialogue found in the text. Then have students role-play a client consultation for selecting an appropriate hairstyle. Conduct a discussion following the role-play and ask students to identify what worked and what did not. After thorough discussion, have a different team of students perform another role-play on the same topic.
30Summary and Review What are the 5 elements of design? What are the 5 art principles of hair design?Why must the stylist consider the client’s entire body when designing a hairstyle?SUMMARY AND REVIEWOf vital importance to the professional cosmetologist is the ability to select, adapt, and execute a hairstyle that is both suitable and desirable to the client. You will apply the elements and principles of design learned in this lesson to add creativity, dimension, and uniqueness to your work. We have learned that form, space, line, color, and wave patterns are all essential elements in creating a successful style. We have also learned that proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis, and harmony are used to create total looks that are pleasing to the eye. It is essential for the successful cosmetologist to be able to analyze the client’s face and head shape when designing a suitable style. It will take practice, but ultimately you will develop an innate sense for design lines that will flatter and satisfy the client.Let’s review.What are the five elements of design?ANSWER: Form, space, line, color, and wave pattern.What are the five art principles of hair design?ANSWER: Proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis, and harmony.Why must the stylist consider the client’s entire body when designing a hairstyle?ANSWER: Because challenges in body proportion become more obvious if the hair form is too small or too large.
31Summary and Review What are symmetrical and asymmetrical balances? What is considered to be the most important art principle and why?Explain the general principles of highlighting or camouflaging facial featuresWhat are symmetrical and asymetrical balances?ANSWER: Symmetrical is when the imaginary line drawn through the center of the face and two resulting halves form a mirror image of one another.Asymetrical has two imaginary halves, having equal visual weight, or appear equal but the form is positioned unevenly. Opposite sides of the hairstyle are different lengths or have a different volume. Asymmetry can be horizontal or diagonal.What is considered to be the most important art principle and why?ANSWER: Harmony. It holds all the elements of the design together. When a style is harmonious, it has form with interesting lines, pleasing color, and a balance and rhythm that strengthens the design.Explain the general principles of highlighting or camouflaging facial features.ANSWER: To use color and hair to maximize best features and minimize those less than perfect.
32Summary and Review List and describe the 7 facial shapes List and describe the seven facial shapes.ANSWER:OVAL FACIAL TYPE: The contour and proportions of the oval face shape, form the basis and ideals for modifying all other facial types. Facial contour. The oval face is about one and a half times longer than its width across the brow. The forehead is slightly wider than the chin. A person with an oval face can wear any hairstyle unless there are other considerations, such as eyeglasses, length and shape of nose, or profile (see the section on special considerations).ROUND FACIAL TYPE: Facial contour. Round hairline and round chin line; wide face. Aim. To create the illusion of length to the face; this will make the face appear slimmer. Styling choice: A hairstyle that has height or volume on top and closeness or no volume at the sides.SQUARE FACIAL TYPE: Facial contour. Wide at the temples, narrows at the middle third of the face, and squared off at the jaw. Aim. To offset or round out the square features. Styling choice. Soften the hair around the temples and jaw by bringing the shape or silhouette close to the head form. Create volume around the areas between the temples and jaw, by adding width around the ear area, for exampleTRIANGULAR (PEAR-SHAPED) FACIAL TYPE: Facial contour. Narrow forehead, wide jaw and chin line. Aim. To create the illusion of width in the forehead. Styling choice. A hairstyle that has volume at the temples and some height at the top. You can disguise the narrowness of the forehead with a soft bang or fringe.OBLONG FACIAL TYPE: Facial contour. Long, narrow face with hollow cheeks. Aim. To make the face appear shorter and wider. Styling choice. Keep the hair fairly close to the top of the head. Add volume on the sides to create the illusion of width. The hair should not be too long, as this would elongate the oblong shape of the face. Chin length is the most effective.DIAMOND FACIAL TYPE: Facial contour. Narrow forehead, extreme width through the cheekbones, and narrow chin. Aim. To reduce the width across the cheekbone line. Styling choice. Increasing the fullness across the jawline and forehead while keeping the hair close to the head at the cheekbone line helps create an oval appearance. Avoid hairstyles that lift away from the cheeks or move back from the hairline on the sides near the ear area.INVERTED TRIANGLE FACIAL TYPE (HEART SHAPE): Facial contour. Wide forehead and narrow chin line. Aim. To decrease the width of the forehead and increase the width in the lower part of the face. Styling choice. Style the hair close to the head with no volume. A bang or fringe is recommended. Gradually increase the width of the silhouette as you style the middle third of the shape in the cheekbone area and near the ears, and keep the silhouette to its widest at the jaw and neck area.
33Summary and ReviewName at least 5 facial features that must be considered when designing a hairstyleWhat is the difference between a convex and concave profile?How do the elements and principles of hair design apply to men?Name at least five facial features that must be considered when designing a hairstyle.ANSWER: Forehead, eyes, nose, jawline, chin.What is the difference between a convex and concave profile?ANSWER: Convex has a receding forehead and chin. It calls for an arrangement of curls or bangs over forehead. Keep style close to head at the nape and move hair forward in the chin are.Concave has a prominent forehead and chin, with other features receded inward. It should be accommodated by softly styling the hair at the nape with an upward movement. Hair should not be built onto forehead.How do the elements and principles of hair design apply to men?ANSWER: In basically the same way as for women. For example, if a man does not have a prominent chin, a neatly trimmed full beard and mustache could be a good solution.
34one unit of study toward Congratulations!You’ve just completedone unit of study towardprogram completion!