2“There are only two times a customer is right: day and night!” Unknown
3Objectives Describe the three types of hair presses Demonstrate the procedures involved in soft pressing and hard pressingLEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)Cosmetologists who have mastered the techniques of thermal hair pressing are in great demand. This is a service used by many individuals including Whitney Houston and Oprah. The talented and capable stylist will be able to charge a premium for thermal hair straightening services. Thermal hair straightening, better known as hair pressing, is a temporary method of straightening or relaxing the hair. Crude methods to temporarily straighten the hair date back to the ancient Egyptians. They actually packed the hair with mud and allowed it to dry, which relaxed the curl somewhat. They also stretched and adorned the hair with various headdresses and combs to create the illusion of straight hair.Early American slaves used hog lard, butter, resin from trees, and even axle grease from the wheels of the plantation wagons to control their over-curly hair. The oils were applied to the top of the hair, which was then stretched, often beyond its endurance, causing the hair to break off. Lye shampoo was used to remove greases and that sometimes caused further hair loss. In the early 1800s, African Americans used irons heated in tin cans over a fire to straighten their hair. Hog lard was massaged into the hair to protect it from the intense heat.Then, finally, in the early 1900s, a woman named Sarah Breedlove (better known as Madame C. J. Walker) developed the press and curl methods that have been refined and are still used today. Her method included washing and drying the hair and applying petroleum jelly. A metal comb was heated over a small gas burner and super tight curls were removed by applying tension while pressing the heated comb against the hair. The comb would then be pulled through the hair. This process was ultimately improved upon when the marcel iron was discovered in France some years later. In the 1960s when Cher’s long straight hair was so intriguing, all races began straightening their long hair on the ironing board. Imagine the safety hazards of that procedure! So, let’s take a closer look at this intriguing service.
4Thermal Hair Straightening Types Soft pressMedium pressHard pressTHERMAL HAIR STRAIGHTENING: Also called hair pressing. Temporarily straightens extremely curly or unruly hair by means of irons or combs. A pressing generally lasts until the next shampoo. It prepares the hair for additional service such as thermal roller curling and croquignole thermal curling (the two-loop or “figure 8” technique).THREE TYPESSoft press. Removes about 50% to 60% of the curl; accomplished by applying thermal pressing comb once on each side of the hair.Medium press. Removes about 60% to 75% of the curl; accomplished by applying thermal pressing comb once on each side of hair using slightly more pressure than for a soft press.Hard press. Removes 100% of the curl; accomplished by applying thermal pressing comb twice on each side of hair. Can also be done by first passing a hot curling iron through the hair. This is called a double press.
5Analysis of Hair and Scalp Wave patternHair lengthHair textureFeel of hairHair elasticityShade of hairHair conditionScalp conditionANALYSIS OF HAIR AND SCALPPOINTS TO COVERWave pattern of hair: curly or overly curlyLength of hair: long, medium, or shortTexture of hair: coarse, medium, fine, or very fineFeel of hair: wiry, soft, or silkyElasticity of hair: normal or poor. Under normal conditions, a client’s hair has good elasticity if it can be safely stretched to about 50% of its original length. If porosity is normal, then the hair returns to its natural wave pattern when it is wet or moistenedShade of hair: natural, faded, streaked, gray, tinted, or lightenedCondition of hair: normal, brittle, dry, oily, damaged, chemically treatedCondition of scalp: normal, flexible, or tight
6Hair Texture Coarse, overly curly Medium Fine Wiry HAIR TEXTURE. Determined by the diameter and feel of the hair.Coarse, overly curly hair. Coarse hair has greatest diameter and requires more heat and pressure than medium or fine hair when pressing.Medium hair. Medium curly hair is considered normal, presents no problems, and is least resistant to hair pressing.Fine hair. Fine hair requires special care; less heat and pressure are applied to avoid breakage. Fine hair usually has only two layers: cortex and cuticle.Wiry, curly hair. It may be any diameter (coarse, medium, or fine); it feels stiff, hard, and glassy; it is very resistant to pressing and requires more heat and pressure than other hair types.
7Scalp Conditions Normal Tight (with coarse hair) Flexible Record Card SCALP CONDITION CLASSIFICATIONSNormal. Proceed with analysis of hair.Tight with coarse hair. Press in direction of hair growth.Flexible. Pressing may take more pressure.CAUTION: Hair pressing should NOT be done on a client with scalp abrasions, a contagious scalp condition, scalp injury, chemically damaged or chemically relaxed hair; advise client to see dermatologist. Failure to correct dry and brittle hair can result in hair breakage during hair pressing. Burnt hair strands cannot be conditioned.ACTIVITY: Have two students volunteer to role play the situation described in the textbook where a client has to be advised that his hair is not suitable for a pressing service. Have students use their own words for the role-play. Have the observing students provide feedback on the dialogue. Then have the students reverse roles and role-play another scenario regarding a client consultation prior to a hair pressing service.RECORD CARD. Client record cards maintain a thorough and accurate history of the client’s hair and scalp condition and all services received.
8Conditioning Treatments Cosmetic preparationsThorough brushingScalp massageCONDITIONING TREATMENTS: Effective conditioning treatments involve special cosmetic preparations for the hair and scalp, thorough brushing, and scalp massage.
9Pressing Combs Construction Handles Teeth Tempering the comb PRESSING COMBS: Regular and electricConstruction. Quality stainless steel or brassHandles. Usually made of wood or substance that does not readily absorb heatTeeth. More space between teeth produces a coarse or open-looking press. Less space between teeth produces a smoother press. Shorter combs are used with short hair and long combs are used with long hair.Tempering the comb. Tempering allows the brass to hold heat evenly along the entire length of the comb, which gives better results. Tempering also burns off any polish the manufacturer may have used to coat the comb.Place comb in heating appliance until very hot.Remove comb and submerge or coat in petroleum or pressing oil.
10Testing the temperature Attachment Clean the comb Heating the combTesting the temperatureAttachmentClean the combHeating the comb. Regular combs are heated on a gas stove or in electric heater. During heating, teeth should face up and handle should be kept away from fire. Some heaters have an on/off switch; others have a thermostat to indicate temperature.Testing the temperature. Test comb on a light piece of paper; if paper becomes scorched, allow comb to cool slightly before applying to hair.Attachment. An attachment fits the nozzle of a standard hand-held blow dryer and is less damaging than an electric comb or an oven-heated comb.Cleaning the comb. Combs are more efficient if kept clean and free of carbon.Wipe clean of loose hair, grease, and dust. Intense heat keeps comb sterile, once all loose hair or clinging dirt is removed.Remove carbon by rubbing outside surface and between teeth with emery board,fine steel wool pad, or fine sandpaper.Immerse metal portion in hot baking soda solution for 1 hour.Rinse and dry thoroughly. Metal should acquire a smooth, shiny appearance.
11Pressing Oil Benefits Makes hair softer Prepares hair for pressing Prevents hair from burningHelps prevent breakageConditions hair after pressingAdds sheenHelps retain pressPRESSING OIL OR CREAM BENEFITSMakes hair softerPrepares and conditions hair for scorchingHelps prevent hair breakageHelps condition hair after pressingAdds sheen to pressed hairHelps hair remain pressed longer
12Soft Curl Press Heat pressing comb Unpin section Apply pressing oil Test iron temperatureLift end of hairNOTE: Explain any other procedures that you or your school also teach. Hand out LP 15.2, H-1, and have students follow along the procedure sheet while you review the steps.Then, have students put away the handout because it can be distracting to the actual demonstration.HARD PRESS: If soft press is unsatisfactory, a hard press is recommended. Repeat the entire procedure. Pressing oil may be added if necessary. Hard press is also called a double comb press.SOFT PRESSING FOR NORMAL CURLY HAIR—PROCEDUREHeat the pressing comb.Unpin section. Unpin one section of the hair at a time and subdivide into smaller partings. Beginning at the right side of the head, work from front to back (some stylists prefer to start at the back of the head and work forward).If necessary, apply pressing oil evenly and sparingly over the small hair sections.Test temperature of iron. Test the temperature of the heated pressing comb on a white cloth or white paper to determine heat intensity before you place it on the hair.Lift end of hair. Lift the end of a small hair section with the index finger and thumb of the left hand and hold it upward, away from the scalp.3.TOUCH UPS. Hair may become curly again due to perspiration, dampness, humidity or other conditions. Process is same as for original press without the shampoo.
13Soft Curl Press Insert teeth of comb Draw out comb Press through hair strandPlace completed sectionsInsert teeth of comb. Holding the pressing comb in the right hand, insert the teeth of the comb into the top side of the hair section.Draw out comb. Draw out the pressing comb slightly; make a quick turn so that the hair strand wraps itself partly around the comb. The back rod of the comb actually does the pressing.Press through hair strand. Press the comb slowly through the hair strand until the ends of the hair pass through the teeth of the comb.Place each completed hair section on the opposite side of the head.
14Soft Curl Press Continue steps 4 to 8 Apply pomade Style hair Continue. Continue Steps 4 to 8 on both sections on the right side of the head; then do the same on both sections on the left side.Apply pomade. Apply a little pomade to the hair near the scalp and brush it through the hair. If desired, the hair can be curled with a curling iron at this time.Style and comb the hair according to the client’s wishes.
15Cleanup and Sanitation Discard disposable itemsDisinfect brush and combClean pressing combSanitize workstationWash hands
16What to Avoid Excessive heat or pressure on hair and scalp Too much pressing oil on hairPerfumed pressing oil near scalpToo frequent hair pressingWHAT TO AVOIDExcessive heat or pressure on hair and scalp.Too much pressing oil on hair. This can attract dirt and make hair look greasy and artificial.Perfumed pressing oil near scalp if client is allergic.Too frequent hair pressing, which can weaken the hair.
17Reminders and Hints Keep comb clean and carbon free Avoid overheating pressing combTest comb temperatureAdjust temperatureUse comb carefully to avoid burning skinPrevent smoking/burning of hairUse moderately warm comb at temples and napeREMINDERS AND HINTSKeep comb clean and free from carbon.Avoid overheating pressing comb.Test temperature of comb before applying. Remember to use white cloth or white paper.Adjust temperature to texture and hair condition.Use heated comb carefully to avoid burning skin, scalp, or hair.Prevent smoking or burning of hair during pressing treatment by drying hair completely after shampooing and avoiding excessive application of pressing oil over the hair.Use moderately warm comb to press short hair on the temples and back of neck.
18Safety Precautions Immediate physical damage Not immediately evident Immediate physical damage. These injuries are the immediate results of hair pressing and cause physical damage, such as burnt hair that breaks off, burnt scalp that causes either temporary or permanent loss of hair, and burns on the ears and neck that form scars.Not immediately evident. These injuries can later cause physical damage, such as a skin rash if the client is allergic to pressing oil or the breaking and shortening of hair due to overly frequent hair pressings.HINT: In case of scalp burn, immediately apply 1% gentian violet jelly.
19Special Considerations Pressing fine hairPressing short, fine hairPressing coarse hairPressing tinted, lightened, gray hairSPECIAL CONSIDERATIONSPressing fine hair. Don’t use too much heat or pressure; apply less pressure near hair ends.Pressing short, fine hair. Take extra care at hairline and avoid excessive heat in comb.Pressing coarse hair. Extra pressure is needed for hair to remain straightened.Pressing tinted, lightened, or gray hair. Lightened hair may require conditioning treatment; use moderately heated pressing comb applied with light pressure. Breakage and discoloration can occur on tinted, lightened, or gray hair if excessive heat is used.
20Summary and Review Name and describe the three types of hair presses. How do you test the pressing comb?What are the elements of a hair and scalp analysis prior to hair pressing?SUMMARY AND REVIEWWe have learned that hair pressing can be a very lucrative service in the salon. We have also learned that good judgment should be used to avoid damage to the hair and scalp. Hair texture and density are key factors in determining which pressing procedure to use. Every precaution should be observed to ensure that the hair pressing is successful and the client’s welfare is maintained.Let’s review:Name and describe the three types of hair presses.ANSWER:Soft press—removes 50% to 60% of the curlMedium press—removes 60% to 75% of the curlHard press or double press—removes 100% of the curlHow do you test the pressing comb before beginning a service?ANSWER: Test the comb on a white cloth or white paper.What are the elements of a hair and scalp analysis prior to hair pressing?If normal, give appropriate advice concerning corrective treatments.Scalp abrasions. Don’t diagnose; advise client to see dermatologist.If signs of neglect or abuse caused by faulty pressing, lightening, or tinting, recommend a series of conditioning treatments.
21Summary and Review When should hair not be pressed? List four safety measures for hair pressing.When should hair not be pressed?ANSWER: When the client has scalp abrasions, a contagious scalp condition, a scalp injury or chemically damaged hair.5. List four safety measures for hair pressing.ANSWER:Avoid excessive heat or pressure on the hair and scalp.Avoid too much pressing oil on the hair.Avoid perfumed pressing oil near the scalp if the client is allergic.Avoid overly frequent hair pressing, which weakens the hair.
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