2“We all live in suspense from day to day, from hour to hour; in other words, we are the hero of our own story”Mary McCarthy
3Objectives Understand the procedure for chemical hair relaxing Understand the difference between hydroxide and thio relaxersUnderstand the difference between hydroxide and thio neutralizersExplain the basic procedure for a curlreforming serviceLEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?)Cosmetologists who are skilled in the art of chemical hair relaxing are in great demand today. The service is used for clients of many nationalities who have extra curly hair. With today’s technology, hair that is very curly or super curly can be relaxed and styled in a wide variety of methods without much difficulty. Great strides have been made since the early days of America where attempts to soften curly hair were made with a mixture of mashed potatoes, lye and oil. Hair was also wrapped and twisted in an effort to straighten it and that sometimes resulted in hair loss.In today’s salons, services such as chemical relaxing and soft curl permanents are priced higher than many other salon services. Therefore, it is of extreme benefit to you as a student of cosmetology to become proficient in all these services. These skills will truly generate revenue and increase your profits when you enter the salon.Remember, a good cosmetologist can do hair; but a great one can do all types of hair with success. Thorough hair and scalp analysis will be essential to creating successful styles using these chemical services. Chemical hair relaxing is nothing more than the process of permanently rearranging the basic structure of overly curly hair into a straight (or less curly) form. When done professionally, it leaves the hair relaxed and in satisfactory condition which can then be given a wide variety of styles. A professional relaxing service can literally be the difference between disaster and a dazzling finished look.
4Chemical Hair Relaxers Ammonium thioglycolateSodium hydroxideCHEMICAL HAIR RELAXERS: Chemical hair relaxing is the process of rearranging the basic structure of extremely curly hair into a straight or less curly form.The chemical process is very similar although the results are opposite from permanent waving hair. The chemistry of thio relaxers and permanent waving is exactly the same. All relaxing and permanent waving services change the shape of the hair by breaking disulfide bonds.TWO MOST COMMON TYPESAmmonium thioglycolate, also know as thio relaxers.Sodium hydroxide, also called hydroxide relaxers.
5Characteristics Highly alkaline Can melt or dissolve hair Highly alkaline. Can literally melt or dissolve hair if used incorrectly.Most use same ingredients as depilatories. NOTE: You might mention commercial products that students use to remove hair from their legs, for example.
6Extremely Curly Hair Exists in all races Grows in long twisted spirals or coilsCross-sections are elliptical and vary in shape and thicknessIrregular in strand diameterWeakest sections located at twistsEXTREMELY CURLY HAIRExists in all races. All races can have hair with different degrees of curliness.Grows in long twisted spirals or coils.Cross-sections are highly elliptical and vary in shape and thickness.Irregular in diameter along a single strand.Weakest sections located at twists. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Twists of extremely curly hair are the weakest and that’s where it will usually break.
7Thio RelaxersMain ingredient is ammonium thioglycolate or ATG (higher concentration than in permanent wave solution)pH above 10Higher viscosity than perm solutionBreak disulfide bonds and soften hairTHIO RELAXERS: Main ingredient is ammonium thioglycolate; the same reducing agent used in permanent waving.Usually have a pH above 10.Usually have a higher concentration of ammonium thioglycolate than used in permanent waving.Thicker, with a higher viscosity. This is more suitable for application as a relaxer.Break disulfide bonds and soften hair. After enough bonds are broken, hair is straightened into new shape and relaxer is rinsed from hair.
8Thio Neutralization Oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide) Rebuilds disulfide bondsTHIO NEUTRALIZATION: Neutralizer is an oxidizing agent.Hydrogen peroxideRebuilds disulfide bonds, the bonds broken by the thio relaxer
9Hydroxide Relaxers Active ingredient = hydroxide ion Types Strong alkalisSodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, guanidine hydroxideIncompatible with thio relaxerspH of 13.0 or higherLanthionizationHYDROXIDE RELAXERS: The hydroxide ion is the active ingredient.Types: Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, guanidine hydroxide.All types of hydroxide relaxers are strong alkalis that can swell hair up to twice its normal diameter.Not compatible with thio relaxers.Have a pH of 13.0 or more. Since each step in the pH scale is a tenfold change in concentration, a pH of 13.0 is 100 million times more alkaline than a pH of 5.0!Hydroxide relaxers remove one atom of sulfur from a disulfide bond and convert it to a lanthionine bond. This process is called lanthionization:Disulfide bonds contain two sulfur atomsLanthionine bonds contain one sulfur atom. Disulfide bonds that are broken by hydroxide relaxers are broken permanently and can never be re-formed.
10Hydroxide Neutralization Does not involve oxidationAlkaline residues are deactivated by:Acid-balanced shampooNormalizing lotionHYDROXIDE NEUTRALIZATIONDoes not involve oxidation.Deactivation occurs by using an acid-balanced shampoo or a normalizing lotion. CAUTION: Hair that has been treated with hydroxide relaxers is unfit for thio relaxers or soft curl permanents.
11Metal Hydroxide Relaxers Ionic compounds formed by metal:Sodium (Na), potassium (K), lithium (Li), which are combined with oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H)Include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and lithium hydroxide (LiOH)TYPES OF HYDROXIDE RELAXERSMetal hydroxide relaxers. Ionic compounds formed by a metal (sodium, Na; potassium, K; or lithium, Li) which combined with oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H). Metal hydroxide relaxers include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and lithium hydroxide (LiOH).The ACTIVE ingredient is the HYDROXIDE ION.
12Metal Hydroxide Relaxers Sodium hydroxide commonly called lye relaxersLithium and potassium hydroxide called “no mix – no lye” relaxersSodium hydroxide relaxers. Commonly called lye relaxers or caustic soda; this is the oldest and most common type of hair relaxer. It’s the same chemical as used in drain cleaners and chemical hair depilatories.Lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. These relaxers are often advertised as “no mix-no lye” relaxers. They are not “lye” but their chemistry and performance are nearly identical.
13Guanidine Hydroxide Relaxers Require two components that must be mixedStraighten hair completelyLess scalp irritation than other hydroxide relaxersRecommended for sensitive scalpsDo not reduce hair damageGUANIDINE HYDROXIDE RELAXERS: Advertised and sold as “no lye” relaxers.Hydroxide ion is still active ingredient.Require two components which must be mixed.Straighten hair completely.Less scalp irritation than other hydroxide relaxers.Recommended for sensitive scalps. Sold over-the-counter.Do NOT reduce hair damage. They swell hair slightly more than other hydroxide relaxers and are also more drying.
14Low pH Relaxers Sulfites and bisulfites Most common: ammonium sulfite and ammonium bisulfiteCharacteristicsMild alternative relaxersCompatible with thio relaxersDo not straighten extremely curly hairLOW-pH RELAXERSSulfites. Marketed as mild alternative relaxers; compatible with thio relaxers; not compatible with hydroxide relaxers; do not completely straighten extremely curly hair. Low pH relaxers are intended for use on color-treated hair.Bisulfites
15Thermal Ionic Reconstructors Thio relaxerUse double hot blow-dryUse double hot press with flat ironsTHERMAL IONIC RECONSTRUCTORSNothing more than a thio relaxer with a double hot blow-dry and a double hot press with flat irons. The added heat while drying and pressing helps make them more effective than standard thio relaxers.
17Base and No-Base Relaxers Requires application of base creamCream protects skin and scalpNo-base relaxerProtective base not requiredBase cream melts at body temperatureProtective cream may be applied around ears and hairlineBASE RELAXERS: Require application of base cream. Base cream is an oily cream used to protect skin and scalp during hair relaxing.NO-BASE RELAXERSProtective base not required.Contain a base cream that melts at body temperature.Protective, base cream may be applied around ears and hairline.
18Relaxer Strengths Mild Regular Super RELAXER STRENGTHS: Most come in three different strengths: mild, regular, and super.Mild. Formulated for fine, color-treated, or damaged hair.Regular. Intended for normal hair texture with medium natural curl.Super. Used for maximum strengthening on extremely curly, coarse hair.CAUTION: Extreme damage can occur if thio or hydroxide relaxers are applied to hair that has been colored with products containing metallic salts.
19General Procedures Virgin relaxer Relaxer retouch Normalizing solution Applied ¼” to 2” from scalp to porous endsApply to scalp hair or ends for last few minutesRelaxer retouchApplied ¼” to ½” from scalp and includes new growth only; apply to scalp for last few minutesNormalizing solutionCHEMICAL HAIR RELAXING PROCEDURES: Many steps for both thio and hydroxide relaxers are the same.HYDROXIDE RELAXER: All hydroxide relaxers follow the same procedure, but different application methods are used for virgin and retouch relaxers.Virgin relaxer. Used only for hair that has not had previous chemical texture services. Product is applied ¼ to 2 inches from scalp and includes entire strand up to porous ends. To avoid over processing and scalp irritation, do not apply relaxer to scalp hair or ends until last few minutes of processing.Retouch relaxer. Used for hair that has had previous chemical texture services.Application starts ¼ to ½ inch away from scalp and includes new growth only. To avoid over processing and scalp irritation, do not apply relaxer to scalp hair until last few minutes of processing. If the previously relaxed hair requires additional straightening, relaxer may be applied for the last few minutes of processing.Normalizing solution. Conditioners with an acidic pH that condition the hair and restore the natural pH after rinsing out the relaxer and prior to shampooing.
20Periodic Strand Testing Determine when hair is sufficiently relaxedStretch strandsSmooth and press strand to scalp using back of comb or fingerIf strand remains smooth, it’s relaxedIf curl returns, continue processingPERIODIC STRAND TESTING: Tells you when hair is sufficiently relaxed.After relaxer is applied, stretch strands to see how fast natural curls are being removed.May also smooth and press the strand to the scalp using back of comb or finger.If strand remains smooth, it is sufficiently relaxed.If curl returns, continue processing. Processing time will vary according to the strength of the tool, the hair type and condition, and the results you are looking for.
22Hydroxide Relaxer Materials Hydroxide neutralizerProtective base creamAcid-balanced shampooConditionerBowl and brushShampoo capeTowelsPlastic clipsStyling combPlastic tail combSpray bottleDisposable glovesTimerPROCEDURE FOR RELAXING WITH HYDROXIDE RELAXERIMPLEMENTS AND MATERIALSHydroxide relaxer, hydroxide neutralizer, protective base cream, acid-balanced shampoo, conditioner, bowl and applicator brush, shampoo cape, towels, plastic clips, styling comb, plastic tail comb, spray bottle, disposable gloves, timer
23Preparation Wash hands Do hair and scalp analysis Conduct client consultationChange into gown, remove jewelryDrape client and shampooPREPARATIONWash your hands.Perform an analysis of the hair and scalp. Perform tests for porosity and elasticity.Complete the client consultation. Fill out the client relaxer record. Note any changes in the client’s history.Have the client change into a gown and remove eyeglasses, earrings, and necklace.Drape the client with a shampoo cape and two towels. To avoid scalp irritation, do not shampoo the hair prior to using a hydroxide relaxer.
24Procedure Section and clip hair Protect client Begin application Section and clip hair. Part the hair into four sections, from the center of the front hairline to the center of the nape, and from ear to ear. Clip the sections up to keep them out of the way.Protect client. Apply protective base cream to the hairline and ears. Option: Take 1/4-inch to 1/2-inch (.6 to 1.25 cm) horizontal partings, and apply a protective base cream to the entire scalp. (Always follow the manufacturer's directions, and the procedures approved by your instructor).Begin application. Wear gloves on both hands. Begin application in the most resistant area, usually at the back of the head. Make 1/4-inch to 1/2-inch horizontal partings, and apply the relaxer to the top of the strand first, then to the underside. Apply the relaxer with a brush, or the back of a tail comb or fingers. Apply relaxer 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch away from the scalp, and up to the porous ends. To avoid scalp irritation, do not allow the relaxer to touch the scalp until the last few minutes of processing.
25Procedure Work down section toward hairline Continue application Smooth with back of combProcess and do strand testContinue applying the relaxer, working your way down the section toward the hairline.Continue the same application procedure with the remaining sections. Finish the most resistant sections first.Smooth with back of comb. After the relaxer has been applied to all sections, use the back of the comb, or your hands to smooth each section. Never comb the relaxer through the hair.Process and strand test. Process according to the manufacturer’s directions. Perform periodic strand tests. Processing usually takes less than 20 minutes at room temperature. Always follow manufacturer’s processing directions.
26Procedure Work relaxer to scalp Rinse thoroughly Work relaxer to scalp. During the last few minutes of processing, work the relaxer down to the scalp and through the ends of the hair, using additional relaxer as needed. Carefully smooth all sections using an applicator brush, fingers, or back of the comb.Rinse thoroughly with warm water to remove all traces of the relaxer.
27Neutralization Procedure Optional: Apply normalizing lotionShampoo 3 timesRinse thoroughly and conditionStyle as desiredNEUTRALIZATION PROCEDURE FOR HYDROXIDE RELAXERS1.2.3.Optional: Apply the normalizing lotion and comb it through to the ends of the hair. Leave it on for approximately five minutes and then rinse thoroughly. Always follow the manufacturer's directions, and the procedures approved by your instructor.Shampoo at least three times with an acid-balanced neutralizing shampoo. It is essential that all traces of the relaxer be removed from the hair. Option: If you are using a neutralizing shampoo with a color indicator, a change in color will indicate when all traces of the relaxer are removed and the natural pH of the hair and scalp has been restored.Rinse thoroughly, condition, and style as desired.
28Cleanup and Sanitation Discard disposable suppliesDisinfect and store implementsSanitize workstationWash handsComplete client recordCLEANUP AND SANITATION FOR ALL RELAXERSDiscard disposable supplies in appropriate receptacles.Disinfect implements and store according to sanitation requirements.Clean, sanitize, and prepare your workstation for the next service.Wash your hands with warm soap and water.Complete the client record.
29Hydroxide Relaxer Retouch Work on dry hairProtect handsApply relaxerContinue applicationPROCEDURE FOR HYDROXIDE RELAXER RETOUCHWork on dry hair. Do not shampoo the hair. Hair and scalp must be completely dry. Divide the hair into four sections, from the center of the front hairline to the center of the nape, and from ear to ear. Clip sections up to keep them out of the way.Protect hands. Wear gloves on both hands. Apply a protective base cream to the hairline and ears. Option: Take 1/4-inch to 1/2-inch horizontal (.6 to 1.25 cm) partings and apply protective base cream to the entire scalp.Apply relaxer. Begin application of the relaxer in the most resistant area, usually at the back of the head. Make 1/4-inch to 1/2-inch horizontal partings and apply the relaxer to the top of the strand. Apply the relaxer 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch away from the scalp and only to new growth. Do not allow the relaxer to touch the scalp until the last few minutes of processing. To avoid over processing or breakage, do not overlap the relaxer onto the previously relaxed hair.Continue applying the relaxer, using the same procedure and working your way down the section toward the hairline.
30Hydroxide Relaxer Retouch Continue application; finish most resistant sectionsSmooth sectionsProcess and do strand testWork relaxer to scalp126.96.36.199.Continue the same application procedure with the remaining sections, finishing the most resistant sections first.After the relaxer has been applied to all sections, use the back of the comb, the applicator brush, or your hands to smooth each section.Process and strand test. Process according to the manufacturer’s directions. Perform periodic strand tests. Processing usually takes less than 20 minutes at room temperature. Always follow the manufacturer’s processing directions.Work relaxer to scalp. During the last few minutes of processing, gently work the relaxer down to the scalp.
31Hydroxide Relaxer Retouch Work relaxer to endsRinse thoroughlyNeutralizeStandard cleanupWork relaxer to ends. If the ends of the hair need additional relaxing, work the relaxer through to the ends for the last few minutes of processing. Do not relax ends during each retouch; doing this will cause overprocessing. Option: A cream conditioner may be applied to relaxed ends to protect from overprocessing caused by overlapping.Rinse thoroughly. Use warm water to remove all traces of the relaxer.Neutralize. Follow virgin hydroxide neutralizing procedure. Style the hair as desired.Standard cleanup. Follow standard cleanup and sanitation procedures.
32Thio Relaxer Procedure Procedure is exactly the same as for virgin sodium hydroxide relaxer
33Thio Neutralization Blot excess water Optional: Apply pre-neutralizing conditioner and rinseRinse, condition, and styleNEUTRALIZATION PROCEDURE FOR THIO RELAXERS1. Blot excess water from the hair.2. Optional: Apply the pre-neutralizing conditioner and comb it through to the ends of the hair. Leave it on for approximately 5 minutes and then rinse. Always follow the manufacturer's directions and the procedures approved by your instructor.3. Apply thio neutralizer in 1/4- to 1/2-inch sections throughout the hair and smooth with your hands or the back of the comb.Process the neutralizer according to the manufacturer’s directions.4. Rinse thoroughly, shampoo, condition, and style.
34Thio Relaxer RetouchFollow preparation and application procedure for hydroxide retouchFollow the virgin thio relaxer neutralizing and cleanup proceduresTHIO RELAXER PROCEDURESThe application steps for thio relaxers are the same as those for hydroxide relaxers, although the neutralization procedure is different. Relaxer may be applied with bowl and brush, applicator bottle, or the back of a rattail comb. Although all thio relaxers follow the same procedures, different applications methods are used for virgin relaxers and retouch relaxers.
35Soft Curl Perm Materials Thio cream relaxerThio curl boosterPreneutralizing conditionerThio neutralizerProtective baseAcid-balanced shampooConditionerBowlsApplicator brushApplicator bottlesShampoo capeNeutralizing bibDisposable glovesCotton coil or ropeTowels and clipsCombs and rodsEnd papersSpray bottleTimerCURL RE-FORMING (SOFT CURL PERMANENTS)Curl re-forming does not straighten the hair; it simply makes the existing curl larger and looser. A soft curl permanent may also be called a Jheri curl (named after beauty pioneer Jheri Redding), or simply a curl. It is a combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent that is wrapped on large rods. Soft curl permanents use ATG and oxidation neutralizers, just as thio permanent waves do.
36Preparation Wash hands Perform client consultation Have client change into gown and remove eyeglasses and jewelryGently shampoo
37Soft Curl Perm Procedure Follow virgin hydroxide relaxer procedureRinse and sectionRoll hairContinue wrappingFollow Procedure This is the procedure for applying virgin hydroxide relaxer.Rinse and section. After rinsing the hair, part it into nine panels. Use the length of the rod to measure the width of the panels.Roll hair. Wear gloves on both hands and begin wrapping at the most resistant area. Apply and distribute the thio curl booster to each panel as you wrap the hair. Make a horizontal parting the same size as the rod. Hold the hair at a 90-degree angle to the head. Using two end papers, roll the hair down to the scalp and position the rod half off-base. Option: Insert roller picks to stabilize the rods and eliminate any tension caused by the band.Continue wrapping. Continue wrapping the remainder of the first panel using the same technique.
38Soft Curl Perm Procedure Continue wrappingPlace cottonApply plastic capCheck cotton and towelsProcessContinue wrapping. Continue wrapping the remaining eight panels in numerical order using the same technique.Place cotton. Place cotton around the hairline and neck and apply thio curl booster to all the curls until they are completely saturated.Apply plastic cap. If a plastic cap is used, punch a few holes in the cap and cover all the hair completely. Do not allow the plastic cap to touch the client’s skin.Check cotton and towels. If they are saturated with solution, replace them.Process. Process according to manufacturer’s directions. Processing time will vary according to the strength of the product, the hair type and condition, and desired results. Processing usually takes less than 20 minutes at room temperature. Always follow the manufacturer’s directions.
39Soft Curl Perm Procedure Check curlRinse and towel-dry hairNeutralizeDistribute remaining neutralizerStyle as desiredCheck curl. Check for proper curl development.Rinse and towel dry hair. When processing is completed, rinse the hair thoroughly, for at least 5 minutes. Then towel-blot the hair on each rod to remove excess moisture. Option: Apply pre-neutralizing conditioner according to the manufacturer’s directions. Always follow the manufacturer's directions and the procedures approved by your instructor.Neutralize. Apply the neutralizer slowly and carefully to the hair on each rod. Avoid splashing and dripping. Make sure each rod is completely saturated.Distribute remaining neutralizer. Set a timer and neutralize according to the manufacturer’s directions. Remove the rods, distribute the remaining neutralizer through the ends of the hair, and rinse thoroughly. Option: Shampoo and condition. Always follow the manufacturer’s directions and the procedures approved by your instructor.Style the hair as desired.
40Safety Precautions Do thorough hair analysis and consultation Examine scalp for abrasionsKeep accurate and detailed recordsObtain release statement signatureDo not apply hydroxide over thioDo not apply thio over hydroxideDo not relax over metallic dyed hairSAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR HAIR RELAXINGPerform a thorough hair analysis and client consultation prior to the service.Examine the scalp for abrasions. Do not proceed with the service if redness, swelling or skin lesions are present.Keep accurate and detailed client records of the services performed and the results achieved.Have the client sign a release statement indicating that she understands the possible risks involved in the service.Do not apply a hydroxide relaxer on hair that has been previously treated with a thio relaxer.Do not apply a thio relaxer, or soft curl perm on hair that has been previously treated with a hydroxide relaxer.Do not chemically relax hair that has been treated with a metallic dye.
41Safety Precautions Do not relax overly damaged hair Do not shampoo before applying hydroxide relaxerApply hydroxide relaxer on dry hairApply protective baseWear glovesProtect client’s eyes; flush immediatelyDo not allow relaxer to contact ears, scalp, or skinDo not relax overly damaged hair. Suggest instead a series of reconstruction treatments.Do not shampoo the client prior to the application of a hydroxide relaxer.The client’s hair and scalp must be completely dry and free from perspiration prior to the application of a hydroxide relaxer.Apply a protective base cream to avoid scalp irritation.Wear gloves during the relaxer application.Protect the client’s eyes.If any solution accidentally gets into the client’s eye, flush the eye immediately with cool water and refer the client to a doctor.Do not allow chemical relaxers to accidentally come into contact with the client’s ears, scalp, or skin.
42Safety Precautions Perform periodic strand tests Avoid scratching scalpDo not overlap relaxerDo not use strong relaxer on fine or damaged hairDo not remove more than 80% of curlThoroughly rinsePerform periodic strand tests to see how fast the natural curls are being removed.Avoid scratching the scalp with your comb or fingernails.Do not allow the application of a relaxer retouch to overlap onto previously relaxed hair.Never use a strong relaxer on fine or damaged hair. It may cause breakage.Do not attempt to remove more than 80 % of the natural curl.Thoroughly rinse the chemical relaxer from the hair. Failure to rinse properly can cause excessive skin irritation and hair breakage.
43Safety Precautions Use normalizing lotion Use normalizing shampoo Use conditioner and wide-tooth combDo not use hot ironsPractice caution at all timesUse a normalizing lotion to restore the hair and scalp to their normal acidic pH.Use a neutralizing shampoo with a color indicator to guarantee that the hair and scalp have been restored to their normal acidic pH.Use a conditioner and wide-tooth comb to eliminate excessive stretching when combing out tangles.Do not use hot irons or excessive heat on chemically relaxed hair.Performing texture services involves using powerful chemicals, which must be handled with the utmost caution. If you act responsibly and perfect your techniques, your services will be in great demand.
44Summary and Review What is lanthionization? SUMMARY AND REVIEW One of the best ways for you to obtain control of the texture of your client’s over-curly hair is through the use of chemical relaxers. Products that are used to relax overly-curly hair are formulated with sodium hydroxide, ammonium thioglycolate (thio) or acid-based relaxers. Sodium hydroxide is used most often. You have learned that thorough hair and scalp examination and evaluation is critical prior to giving any type of chemical service, including chemical relaxers. You must place the client’s safety first and foremost. In addition, thorough analysis will aid you in determining which type of product and what strength of product to use on the client’s hair. The strand test prior to the service is a crucial and integral part of the service. It will guide you as to how long the product can remain on the hair before desired results are achieve or damage will occur. Chemical relaxing can be done routinely and safely as long as the stylist is careful to follow prescribed procedures, the manufacturer’s directions and perform frequent test curls during the service to prevent overprocessing.The speed attained in applying relaxer product will become very important in this service. Extensive practice using mock products will be of great benefit to you as a student to ensure that you can apply relaxing chemicals to the hair with sufficient speed to eliminate damage to the hair. It is important to review, remember and practice all the safety precautions identified for these services and to remember never to relax the hair more than 80%.Let’s review.What is lanthionization?ANSWER: The process by which hydroxide relaxers permanently straighten hair; lanthionization breaks the hair’s disulfide bonds during processing and converts them to lanthionine bonds when the relaxer is rinsed from the hair.
45Summary and ReviewWhat is the major difference between thio and hydroxide relaxers?What is the difference between thio and hydroxide neutralizers?What is the major difference between thio and hydroxide relaxers?ANSWER: Thio relaxers usually have a pH above 10 and a higher concentration of ammonium thioglycolate than is used in permanent waving. They use thio to break the disulfide bonds. Hydroxide relaxers have a very high pH, sometimes over 13. They break disulfide bonds differently than in the reduction reaction of thio relaxers. They remove one atom of sulfur from a disulfide bond, converting it into a lanthionine bond.What is the difference between thio and hydroxide neutralizers?ANSWER: Thio relaxers use a neutralizer with an oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide; the oxidation reaction caused by the neutralizer rebuilds the disulfide bonds that were broken by the thio relaxer. Hydroxide neutralization does not involve oxidation. The deactivation of hydroxide relaxers neutralizes the alkaline residues left in the hair by the relaxer; an acid-balanced shampoo or a normalizing lotion may be used to neutralize any remaining hydroxide ions to lower the pH of the hair and scalp.
46Summary and Review Explain the procedure for a soft curl permanent Describe the procedure for a soft curl permanent.ANSWER: Soft curl permanents (curl re-forming) do not straighten the hair; they simply make the existing curl larger and looser. A soft curl permanent may also be called a Jheri curl or simply a curl. It is a combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent that is wrapped on large tools. Soft curl permanents use ammonium thioglycolate and oxidation neutralizers. A soft curl is actually two services. Extremely curly hair is first relaxed, then wrapped on tools. All base sections should be horizontal with the same length and width of the perm tool. The base direction should be in the direction of hair growth. The base control should be half-off base. Once wrapped, it is then processed with a second thio solution (curl booster). After processing, the hair is rinsed, blotted, and neutralized.
47Summary and ReviewList at least 10 safety precautions for permanent waving, soft curl permanents, and chemical hair relaxersList at least 10 safety procedures for soft curl permanents, and chemical hair relaxers.ANSWER:Perform a thorough hair analysis and client consultation.Examine the scalp for abrasions. Do not proceed with the service if redness, swelling, or skin lesions are present.Keep accurate and detailed client records of the services.Have the client sign a release statement. This indicates that the client understands the possible risks involved in the service.Do not apply a hydroxide relaxer on hair previously treated with thio relaxer.Do not apply a thio relaxer on hair previously treated with hydroxide relaxer.Do not chemically relax hair treated with a metallic dye.Do not relax overly damaged hair. Suggest instead a series of reconstruction treatments.Do not shampoo the client prior to application of a hydroxide relaxer.Client’s hair and scalp must be completely dry and free from perspiration prior to applying a hydroxide relaxer.Apply a protective base cream to avoid scalp irritation.Wear gloves during the relaxer application.Protect the client’s eyes. If any solution accidentally gets into the client’s eye, flush the eye immediately with warm water and refer the client to a doctor.Do not allow chemical relaxers to contact client’s ears, scalp, or skin.Perform periodic strand tests to see how fast the natural curls are being removed.Avoid scratching scalp with comb or fingernails.Do not allow application of a relaxer retouch to overlap onto previously relaxed hair.Never use a strong relaxer on fine or damaged hair. It may cause breakage.Do not attempt to remove more than 80% of the natural curl.Thoroughly rinse chemical relaxer from the hair. Failure to rinse properly can cause excessive skin irritation and hair breakage.Use a normalizing lotion to restore hair and scalp to normal acidic pH.Use neutralizing shampoo with a color indicator to guarantee hair/scalp have been restored to normal acidic pH.Use a conditioner and wide-tooth comb to eliminate excessive stretching when combing out tangles.Do not use hot irons or excessive heat on chemically relaxed hair.
48one unit of study toward Congratulations!You’ve just completedone unit of study towardprogram completion!