A History of Black Hair From the 1400s to Present 1444: Europeans trade on the west coast of Africa with people wearing elaborate hairstyles, including locks, plaits and twists. 1619: First slaves brought to Jamestown; African language, culture and grooming tradition begin to disappear. 1700s: Calling black hair “wool,” many whites dehumanize slaves. The more elaborate African hairstyles cannot be retained. 1800s: Without the combs and herbal treatments used in Africa, slaves rely on bacon grease, butter and kerosene as hair conditioners and cleaners. Lighter-skinned, straight-haired slaves command higher prices at auction than darker, more kinky-haired ones. Internalizing color consciousness, blacks promote the idea that blacks with dark skin and kinky hair are less attractive and worth less. 1865: Slavery ends, but whites look upon black women who style their hair like white women as well- adjusted. “Good” hair becomes a prerequisite for entering certain schools, churches, social groups and business networks. 1880: Metal hot combs, invented in 1845 by the French, are readily available in the United States. The comb is heated and used to press and temporarily straighten kinky hair. 1900s: Madame C.J. Walker develops a range of hair-care products for black hair. She popularizes the press- and-curl style. Some criticize her for encouraging black women to look white. 1910: Walker is featured in the Guinness Book of Records as the first American female self-made millionaire. 1920s: Marcus Garvey, a black nationalist, urges followers to embrace their natural hair and reclaim an African aesthetic. 1954: George E. Johnson launches the Johnson Products Empire with Ultra Wave Hair Culture, a “permanent” hair straightener for men that can be applied at home. A women’s chemical straightener follows. present present
Interesting Timeline 1917 The first Lye relaxers sold in US 1919 The first no-lye relaxers available 1971 first patent issued for lye relaxers 1973 first Thio relaxers
CHEMICAL HAIR RELAXERS DR. KARI ILLIAMS Measha Brueggergosman
CHEMICAL HAIR RELAXERS Chemical hair relaxing is the process of rearranging the basic structure of extremely curly hair into a straight or less curly form. The chemical process is very similar although the results are opposite from permanent waving hair. The chemistry of thio relaxers and permanent waving is exactly the same. All relaxing and permanent waving services change the shape of the hair by breaking disulfide bonds.
TWO MOST COMMON TYPES Ammonium thioglycolate Also known as thio relaxers Sodium hydroxide Also called hydroxide relaxers The main ingredient of "lye" relaxers is sodium hydroxide;lyesodium hydroxide no-lye relaxers contain calcium hydroxide and guanidine carbonatelyecalcium hydroxide Ammonium thioglycolate is also known as a perm salt. It is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CO2NH4.
CHARACTERISTICS Highly alkaline; can literally melt or dissolve hair if used incorrectly. Most use same ingredients as depilatories.
EXTREMELY CURLY HAIR This type of hair exists in all races. All races can have hair with different degrees of curliness. This hair grows in long twisted spirals or coils. Cross-sections are highly elliptical and vary in shape and thickness. The hair is irregular in diameter along a single strand. Twists of extremely curly hair are the weakest, and that’s where hair will usually break.
THIO RELAXERS These usually have a pH above 10. Main ingredient is ammonium thioglycolate. These usually have a higher concentration of ammonium thioglycolate than used in permanent waving. These are thicker, with a higher viscosity that is more suitable for application as a relaxer. They break disulfide bonds and soften hair. After enough bonds are broken, hair is straightened into new shape and relaxer is rinsed from hair.
THIO NEUTRALIZATION The neutralizer is an oxidizing agent—usually hydrogen peroxide. The reaction rebuilds disulfide bonds that were broken by the thio relaxer.
HYDROXIDE RELAXERS The hydroxide ion is the active ingredient. Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium hydroxide Guanidine hydroxide All types of hydroxide relaxers have strong alkalis that can swell hair up to twice its normal diameter
HYDROXIDE RELAXERS These are not compatible with thio relaxers. They have a pH of 13.0 or more. Because each step in the pH scale is a tenfold change in concentration, a pH of 13.0 is 100 million times more alkaline than a pH of 5.0.
HYDROXIDE RELAXERS Hydroxide relaxers remove one atom of sulfur from a disulfide bond and convert it to a lanthionine bond by a process called lanthionization. Disulfide bonds contain two sulfur atoms. Lanthionine bonds contain one sulfur atom. Disulfide bonds that are broken by hydroxide relaxers are broken permanently and can never be re-formed.
HYDROXIDE NEUTRALIZATION This process does not involve oxidation. Deactivation occurs by using an acid-balanced shampoo or a normalizing lotion. CAUTION: Hair that has been treated with hydroxide relaxers is unfit for thio relaxers or soft curl permanents.
TYPES OF HYDROXIDE RELAXERS
METAL HYDROXIDE RELAXERS These are ionic compounds formed by a metal that is combined with oxygen and hydrogen. Metal hydroxide relaxers include: Sodium hydroxide relaxers commonly called lye relaxers or caustic soda; this is the most common type of hair relaxer. It’s the same chemical as used in drain cleaners and chemical hair depilatories. Lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide, which are often advertised as “no mix-no lye” relaxers. They are not “lye,” but their chemistry and performance is identical.
GUANIDINE HYDROXIDE RELAXERS Are advertised and sold as “no lye” relaxers Hydroxide the active ingredient Require two components that must be mixed Straighten hair completely Irritate scalp less than hydroxide relaxers Recommended for sensitive scalps Sold over the counter Reduce scalp irritation Do not reduce hair damage Swell hair more than other hydroxide relaxers and are also more drying
LOW pH RELAXERS Sulfites and bisulfites are sometimes used as low-pH hair relaxers. The most commonly used are ammonium sulfite and ammonium bisulfite. They are compatible with thio relaxers. They are not compatible with hydroxide relaxers. They do not completely straighten extremely curly hair. Low pH relaxers are intended for use on color-treated hair.
BASE AND NO-BASE RELAXERS BASE RELAXERS These require application of a base cream. A base cream is an oily cream used to protect skin and scalp during hair relaxing. NO-BASE RELAXERS Protective base is not required. These contain a base cream that melts at body temperature. Protective base cream may be applied around ears and hairline.
RELAXER STRENGTHS Available in Three Strengths Mild—for fine, color-treated, or damaged hair Regular—intended for normal hair texture Super—used on extremely curly, coarse hair
CHEMICAL HAIR RELAXING PROCEDURES
Keratin Complex Smoothing Therapy Global Keratin Treatment
HYDROXIDE RELAXER Many steps for both thio and hydroxide relaxers are the same. All hydroxide relaxers follow the same procedure, but different application methods are used for virgin and retouch relaxers.
VIRGIN RELAXER This application is used only for hair that has not had previous chemical texture services. Product is applied ¼ to ½ an inch from scalp up to the porous ends. To avoid overprocessing and scalp irritation, do not apply relaxer to scalp hair or ends until last few minutes of processing.
RETOUCH RELAXER This application is used for hair that has had previous chemical texture services. Application starts ¼ to ½ inch away from scalp and includes new growth only. To avoid overprocessing and scalp irritation, do not apply relaxer to the scalp until the last few minutes of processing. Normalizing solution is a conditioner with an acidic pH that conditions the hair and restores the natural pH after rinsing out the.relaxer and prior to shampooing.
PERIODIC STRAND TESTING This test indicates when hair is sufficiently relaxed. After relaxer is applied, stretch strands to see how fast natural curls are being removed. If strand remains smooth, it’s sufficiently relaxed. If curl returns, continue processing.
THIO RELAXER PROCEDURES Application steps are the same for hydroxide relaxers except that the neutralization procedure is different. Relaxer may be applied with bowl and brush, applicator bottle, or back of rattail comb.
SOFT CURL PERMANENT Soft curl permanents do not straighten hair. They make existing curl larger and looser. This is also called a Jheri curl. A combination of thio relaxer and thio permanent is wrapped on large rods. Soft curl perms use ammonium thioglycolate and oxidation neutralizers.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Perform a thorough hair analysis and client consultation. Examine the scalp for abrasions. Keep accurate and detailed client records of the services. Have client sign release statement. Do not apply a hydroxide relaxer on hair previously treated with thio relaxer and vice versa. Do not chemically relax hair treated with a metallic dye. Do not relax overly damaged hair. Do not shampoo the client prior to a hydroxide relaxer service. Apply a protective base cream to avoid scalp irritation.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Wear gloves during the relaxer application. Protect the client’s eyes. Do not allow chemical relaxers to contact client’s ears, scalp, or skin. Perform periodic strand tests. Avoid scratching scalp with comb or fingernails. Do not allow application of a relaxer retouch to overlap onto previously relaxed hair. Never use a strong relaxer on fine or damaged hair.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Do not attempt to remove more than 80 percent of the natural curl. Thoroughly rinse chemical relaxer from the hair. Use a normalizing lotion to restore hair to natural pH. Use neutralizing shampoo with a color indicator to guarantee that hair and scalp have been restored to normal acidic pH. Use a conditioner and wide-tooth comb to eliminate excessive stretching when combing out tangles. Do not use hot irons or excessive heat on chemically relaxed hair.
SUMMARY One of the best ways to control the texture of your client’s extremely curly hair is through the use of chemical relaxers. Sodium hydroxide is used most often in hair relaxing. Thorough hair and scalp examination is critical before giving any type of chemical service; it will also help you to determine the type of product and strength of product to be used. A strand test will guide you in how long the product should be left on the hair.
SUMMARY Follow manufacturers’ directions. The speed attained in applying relaxer is very important in the service. Extensive practice using mock products will help you gain speed of application. It is important to review, remember, and practice all the safety precautions identified for these services. Remember never to relax the hair more than 80 percent.