Presentation on theme: "Roman Republic 4 (80s BC) The Social War & Sulla 138-78BC."— Presentation transcript:
Roman Republic 4 (80s BC) The Social War & Sulla 138-78BC
SOCIAL WAR (91-88BC) –In the 90’s Italian Allies (Socii) were still agitating for full citizenship Over 2/3 of Roman army came from Italian allies –Nominally independent, but had to provide troops for Rome, but didn’t get a say in government or fair booty. 30 yrs after C. Gracchi, senate and plebs still blocking it –In 91 the tribune Livius Drusus proposed a law granting this in exchange for oaths of clientship to him. –Rome’s urban poor objected (less land & privileges for them) so rioted and he was killed. So Italian Allies rebelled against Rome –The disappointed Italian allies rebelled and war spread throughout Italy (the Social War) –War spread in Italy till 88BC when the Allies were granted citizenship. Meant that citizens were now spread throughout the whole of Italy –Rome no longer a city state, and its city government style not suitable for this. –L.Julius Caesar (consul in 90) proposed a lex Julii giving citizen to towns that made peace – which they all did by 88BC –Sulla emerged as the clear hero of the social war –Cicero relucantly fought –17yr old Pompey also showed his first promise (fighting in his father’s army) Italy a nation for the first time –Italian countryside laid waste again –Roman armies fought each other for the first time. Still the Allies didn’t get a fair voting share (due to stacking) –All put in 8 of the 35 voting tribes, so they could never become a political force. –Rise in the army and Cursus Honorum Charismatic, he was high born but powerless patrician family with no money –‘Married’ rich widows for their fortune to finance his political ambitions served with MARIUS as quaestor in Numidia in 107 (capture Jugurtha) –Fell out with him over not being recognised for this. served in the war against the Teutone and Cimbri and in the Social war & won honours –Had won a “grass crown” the highest honour for bravery during the Social war Lucius Cornelius SULLA
–Elected consul for 88BC Given command by senate of armies to fight Mithridates of Pontus in Asia minor Who’d been successfully fighting against Roman influence in Asia minor. –He killed 80,000 Romans & allies in Asia province (Asiatic vespers). –Had inoculated himself against poison But the tribune Rufus had the plebs assembly appoint senile old Marius as commander instead of him –Marius’ men literally threw Sulla’s senators out of the senate when they tried overturn the decision (mob violence again) –Sulla was forced to flee Rome Sulla then turned his 6 legions on ROME. This was unprecedented – illegal, immoral – for a Roman general to use Army against Rome. –Marius & Rufus declared enemies of the state. Marius escaped to Numidia, but Rufus was killed Sulla left Rome to fight Mithridates (who’d come as close as Greece) –Rome’s legions out-numbered 3 to 1 –87 BC Marius returned to Rome from exile Took the city with HIS army & purged Sulla’s supporters, cancelled his reforms, & exiled Sulla –Marius let us men loose - 5 days of terror, unchecked violence was elected consul for 86BC but died a fortnight after. –7 th Consulship had been Prophesized at the start of his career –7 eagle chicks, –Return of Sulla in 83BC after defeating Mithridates in 85BC cleaned up the returned in 83. –Had treated Mithridates mercifully, but heavily fined towns of the Asiatic Vespers. Attacked Rome and drove out Marius’ supporters (Civil war till 81BC) –Rome (full of Marian supporters) panicked & Sulla defeated Marius’ son –Was joined by several Roman leaders including CRASSUS and POMPEY –Sulla had himself appointed DICTATOR (without time limit) in 80BC to combat opponents. –first time in nearly 200 years) launched PROSCRIPTIONS (purges) against 2000- 9000 of his opponents for months. –Many declared public enemies, their property/money confiscated for Sulla, his veterans, anyone who killed them. –Most were equites and lists of names were posted in the forum – seemed that their wealth alone was often the reason for their proscription. –Caius Julius CAESAR had to flee Rome (17 yr old nephew of Marius’ wife). was been told to divorce his wife (daughter of one of his greatest enemies in Rome), but he refused –Hiding a proscribed was a capital crime –10000 Slaves of those murdered were set free (got “Cornelius’ surname – now Rome’s most common.
–Sulla’s reforms was he was just backing his optimate faction or trying to reform the republic? He moved power balance away from the the plebs (populares) to the aristocrats (optimates) senate doubled to 600, automatic entry through quaestorhip (20 elected each year) Tightened rules governing magistrates –Age rules reinforced, cursus honorum steps reinforced (quaestor ->praetor ->consul), 10 yrs between terms, increased Praetors to 8 (help govern provinces) Reduced Tribune powers –All laws HAD to be introduced through the senate, –veto power reduced, –no other office allowed after tribunate (to stop its use as a stepping stone) Restricted the powers of Pro-magistrates (provincial governors). –Only make war within their province. Doing so without senate or assembly approval was treason. Law courts reconstituted as permanent courts. –Juries under senate control, widened the scope, presided over by a praetor. Sulla RESIGNED in 79, and died peacefully in 78 in Campania (Naples). –“NO GREATER FRIEND, NOI WORSE ENEMY” –Hi reforms were mostly overturned in 10 years –Results of Sulla’s reign: His attempts to reinstate Senate power addressed symptoms, not causes of the republic’s crises. –general or governor could still attacking Rome for political power (as success trumped treason charges) –Army still tied to its general not the state. –Still had to find how to finance a professional army & break generals political power