Presentation on theme: "Roman Republic 5 70’s BC Rise of Pompey (106-48BC) Crassus (115-53BC) and Caesar (100-44BC)"— Presentation transcript:
Roman Republic 5 70’s BC Rise of Pompey (106-48BC) Crassus (115-53BC) and Caesar (100-44BC)
AFTER SULLA (78BC) Undoing Sulla’s reforms favouring the Optimates began immediately he died. –Lepidus was consul for 78BC a success of the Social war, and Sulla’s Proscriptions, –A populare who’d won support from the urban poor offering cheap corn, returning confiscated property, recalling exiles –Tried to restore the tribunate, was vetoed by the other consul, & attacked Rome Scared senate declared a senatus consultum ultimum, and was killed in 77BC –Showed how easily the reforms of Sulla could be overturned. Gnaeus Pompeius’ early career –Charismatic son of a successful “novus homo” senator from southeast Italy. Campania (where Naples, Pompeii were), –Had helped out Sulla in the Social war with his private Army Raised from among his Clients HE’D defeated Sulla’s enemies in Sicily & Africa and Sulla reluctantly granted him an unprecedented Triumph (usually Consuls only) at 25 yrs of age (& against Romans). –Sulla sarcastically nicknamed him “the great” – Magnus, Mocking his aspirations to copy Alexander & tried to downgrade his triumph (putting it on 3 rd ) –Senate had given him pro-praetorian imperium to fight Lepidus when he attacked Rome (against Sulla’s reforms) He executed Lepidus’ deputy, M Junius Brutus (father of Caesar’s assassin) –He resisted senate’s efforts to end his command, suggesting he be sent with pro-consular rank to help the Roman governor of Spain with a rebellion (15 yrs too young). One of Marius’s generals, Sertorius, was rebelling there V young, he hadn’t even been elected to the lowest rung of the cursus honorum – so wasn’t even a senator –The rebellion ended when Sertorius was killed in battle in 71BC, Pompey co-governed the Hispania province successfully settled things there gently avoiding massacres & giving citizenship to loyal Spaniards.
Rome’s problems as Pompey rose to recognition –corrupt law courts Still under senatorial control – and favouring upper class not urban poor’s interests –Spanish rebellion Of Sulla’s supporter, Sertorius –Tribunes still not restored to power –Mithridates playing up again –Pirates threatening Rome’s corn supply –Spartacus led slave revolt 73/72BC (3 rd Servile war) A Thracian, had rebelled with 70 gladiators & raised a large army on Mt Vesuvius Had many initial victories around Campania (at 1 st Rome didn’t take him seriously sent only 7000 militia men). He trained squads in gladitorial techniques exponentially ready for the consular armies of 72BC They defeated these as he headed out of Italy across the alps, but then (mysteriously) turned back Crassus given pro-consular power in Italy to put it down & 50,000 (8 legions). A feared general (decimation) His legions headed off the rebels at the alps (why did he not escape Italy??) and was chased south to the toe. Betrayed by pirates, captured by Crassus’ and crucified – (6,000) Pompey, returning from Spain, helped mop up the Northern remnants (5000) but he claimed his 2 nd triumph upsetting Crassus (and his hoped for consulship). –Many feared a new civil war Consulship of Pompey and Crassus (70BC). –Crassus – a tycoon from an old consular plebian family Victims of the Marian purges Successful in Sulla’s army, but eclipsed by Pompey throughout his military career (pipped for triumphs ) a tycoon ($170billion)– slave-hirer, land, silver mines and fire-brigade scammer (had defeated Spartacus) though Pompey claimed this honour, (had cleaned up the leftovers when returning from Spain) –Crassus and Pompey formed a pact of alliance ‘amicitia’, and became consuls for 70BC Better to work together, than to destroy each other Even though Pompey was 6 yrs younger than the legal age limit and hadn’t worked up the cursus honorum Senate gave him special dispensation and a 2 nd Triumph, while Crassus only got an Ovation for Spartacus’ defeat
–Pompey was the hero of the day The victor of Sparticus (undeservedly) With tribs because he favoured restoring the tribunate, with equites because equestrian representation in courts –After 10 yrs most of Sulla’s reforms were now overturned, the senate had failed to make the most of the opportunity he’ given it, and civil war was inevitable. –Both Pompey & Crassus reflected the senate’s conservatism (optimates) but was annoyed by their reforms and both were shut both out of good military command after their term Especially the war against Mithridates (which was rekindeld in 74BC). Pompey especially had to struggle to get any command, and even then through the tribunes, not the senate Rise of Caesar –Like Sulla, he was of the best patrician family (tracing back to Venus and Aeneas) had been out of cash and influence until his aunt married Marius, and they could again afford high office. –Young Caesar had fallen foul of Sulla for not divorcing his first wife a daughter of Sulla’s opponent Cinna, –He’d fled Rome (until Sulla forgave him) –He’d been captured by pirates and ransomed when returning from Rhetorics lessons in Rhodes, fulfilled his promise to return, capture the pirates and crucified them. –Military tribune in 71, Quaestor in Spain in 68BC, with Pompey in his battle against the Pirates in 67BC. Pompey defeats the Pirates 68/67BC –The Pirate problem blockading Rome’s corn (with Mithridates) –finally solved by a law (lex Gabinia) giving Pompey immense imperium a 3yr imperium infinitum over the sea & proconsul status over land 80km inland plus men, ships, money. –In 3 months he had removed the problem and was declared “first Man in Rome” EX 10G pg 277