Presentation on theme: "Q1) Who was Clodius?. Clodius was a tribune in 58 BC. With Caesar’s help he had changed his status from patrician to plebeian so that he was eligible."— Presentation transcript:
Q1) Who was Clodius?
Clodius was a tribune in 58 BC. With Caesar’s help he had changed his status from patrician to plebeian so that he was eligible for this office. Clodius had been humiliated by Cicero in the law courts and thus sought revenge against him.
Q2) Summarise the significance of Caesar’s consulship in 59 BC.
Caesar’s conduct as consul broke both the spirit and the letter of the law. He ignored the Senate and he ignored the veto of the other consul, Bibulus. Caesar was immune from prosecution as long as he was a consul or proconsul (and, indeed, he had granted himself a pro-consulship in Gaul for 5 years). However, the threat remained. Also, the violent and illegitimate means used by Caesar were a blow to the ongoing functioning of the Republic.
Q2) Summarise the significance of Caesar’s consulship in 59 BC. Additionally, the lex Campania (which had annexed land for Pompey’s soldiers as well as some plebeians) had antagonised many rich and powerful Romans. The standing of Caesar and his fellow triumvirs was consequently damaged.
Q3) Summarise the significance of Clodius’ tribunate.
Clodius was an ally of Caesar. As such, he ended the use of omens as a means of delaying the conduct of public affairs. This retrospectively legitimised Caesar’s conduct as consul. Clodius had his arch-enemy, Cicero, exiled and his property appropriated. This drove a wedge between Pompey (who was a friend of Cicero’s but did not stand up for him) and Caesar. Clodius also got Caesar’s nemesis, Cato, out of the way by sending him on a mission to Cyprus.
Q4) What strains were there on the alliance between Caesar, Pompey & Crassus in the period from 58 -56 BC?
The first triumvirate had always been an alliance of convenience (Pompey and Crassus were in fact traditional enemies). The decisions made by Caesar in 59 BC and Clodius in 58 BC had ramifications which put strain on this alliance. Clodius (backed by Crassus) and Pompey used rival gangs to intimidate each other. This lead Pompey to call for his old friend, Cicero, to be allowed to return to Rome. Cicero returned the favour by lobbying for Pompey to be given command of the grain supply, a position of considerable power. This had the effect of making the other two triumvirs jealous of Pompey’s power.
Q4) What strains were there on the alliance between Caesar, Pompey & Crassus in the period from 58 -56 BC? Pompey himself was not without resentment. He was sensitive to popular opinion and felt embarrassed by his association with Caesar’s consulship. He was also jealous of Caesar’s successes in Gaul. In relation to Gaul, Caesar was threatened by Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was campaigning for the consulship with the policy of recalling Caesar from Gaul.
Q5) What was the agreement struck by Caesar, Pompey & Crassus at Luca in 56 BC? How did this agreement serve the interests of the three members of the triumvirate?
The essence of the agreement was that Pompey & Crassus would stand for the consulship in 55 BC. They would then realise their proconsular ambitions (eg. Crassus wanted to take control of Syria and did). They would also extend Caesar’s proconsular command over Gaul for another five years. In addition, the understanding was that Cicero would stop calling for the lex Campania to be rescinded and Caesar to be recalled. Crassus would cease any association with Clodius and his gangs.
Q5) What was the agreement struck by Caesar, Pompey & Crassus at Luca in 56 BC? How did this agreement serve the interests of the three members of the triumvirate? This agreement clearly served the interests of all three men. It addressed the increasingly hostile relations between Pompey & Crassus by proposing that they would share power as consuls. It addressed the challenges to Caesar by extending his command in Gaul.
Q6) What means did Pompey and Crassus employ to gain the consulship in 55 BC?
Pompey and Crassus had the elections for consul in 55 rigged. Firstly, they used violence and obstruction to prevent the elections happening until the year 55 began. They then ensured that the interrex, consequently in charge of the elections, was their man. In turn the interrex made sure Pompey and Crassus were the only candidates.
Q7) What events in 53 BC lead to the breakdown of the triumvirate?
Two deaths weakened the ties that had bound the triumvirate together. Firstly, Caesar’s daughter and Pompey’s wife, Julia, died. Pompey rejected Caesar’s offer of a new political marriage affirming their alliance. Secondly, Crassus died in battle against the Parthians in Syria.