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 After the death of Gaius Gracchus in 121, people hoped that the period of violence and turmoil in Rome would end  Unfortunately, challenges still faced.

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Presentation on theme: " After the death of Gaius Gracchus in 121, people hoped that the period of violence and turmoil in Rome would end  Unfortunately, challenges still faced."— Presentation transcript:

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2  After the death of Gaius Gracchus in 121, people hoped that the period of violence and turmoil in Rome would end  Unfortunately, challenges still faced Rome throughout the end of this century and into the next  Sketchy accounts of this period

3  Numidian adopted by King Micipsa (successor to Masinissa – ally of Rome)  At his death, Micipsa left his kingdom to his two sons and Jugurtha  Jugurtha killed one brother and drove out the other (Adherbal)  Rome (Opimius) intervened and divided the kingdom giving Jugurtha the West and Adherbal the more developed East (117)  Bordered Africa – Rome wanted stability  Juguertha invaded Adherbal’s land  Eventually Adherbal surrendered and was killed (112)

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5  Diplomacy failed  Roman forces were not very effective  Began improving around under Metellus, and then under Gaius Marius  In 105, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, quaestor to Marius, persuaded Jugurtha’s ally to betray him  Jugurtha was executed  Roman honor was restored

6  Migration of German peoples south  In 113, they defeated a Roman consul and army who had been sent to observe them  Roman legions continued to be defeated over the next few years  Marius was reelected consul in 104 and sent to Gaul  And subsequently reelected every year until 100  Defeated tribes and removed the threat  Hailed as Rome’s savior

7  No longer three ranks divided by age and equipment  One unified body of heavy infantry  Calvary and light-armed troops were made up of allies  Cohesive fighting power  Eagle made the legions principle standard (Aquila)  Javelins made so that it would buckle after landing

8  In 107, Marius was authorized to draft for his campaign, but instead he called for volunteers and promised them rewards (lowest classes)  Given plots of land in Africa (with the help of tribune Saturninus)  In 100, Marius needed help again rewarding veterans with land  Saturninus again planned to settle veterans in Gaul  He also proposed sending colonies to Greece and Sicily  Additionally, Marius was allowed to grant citizenship to a small number of settlers in each colony  Hostility arose against the extension of citizenship  Proposal passed only after a violent uprising

9  Each provincial community was locally autonomous  Paid a tax to Rome, but usually not required to provide manpower  Governor was supreme in his province  Issued edicts to deal with immediate concerns  Language and cultural barriers  Corruption was easy to get away with  Quaestio de repetundis  Jury court to hear complaints again a governor  Only held in Rome  Governor could only be charged after his office ended

10  Tribune in 91  Proposed the foundation of colonies and the distribution of public lands to poor citizens  Wanted to grant Roman citizenship to all Latins and Italians  Opposition to these legislations gained enough support that it rendered them invalid  Drusus was killed by an assassin

11  Italians hopes of citizenship had been once again destroyed  Began organizing to claim rights of citizenship by force  100,000 men with experience fighting in the Roman army (primarily Samnites and Lucanians)  Latin communities, and many other Italian cities remained loyal to Rome  Rebels caught Rome by surprise, inflicted some severe defeats  Eventually, Rome gained the upper hand and defeated the rebel allies  Rebels effectiveness proved to the Romans that they had to be granted the rights that they desired  Fall 90 – offered citizenship to all communities of allies that remained loyal and those who would defect from rebels by a certain date  89 – extended citizenship to those who were not eligible in 90 and gave Latin status to others  Allied communities gained right to vote, run for office  Latin spread and other languages died out  Encouraged urbanization

12  Tribune in 88  New citizens from Social Wars were restricted to a small number of tribes which could only vote after all the other 35 tribes voted  Sulpicius was determined to gain full voting rights for the new citizens  Opposition from both consuls (including Sulla)  Gained support from Marius in return for Sulla’s command against Mithridates  Used intimidation and violence  Consuls declared a iustitium (suspension of public business)  Street fighting broke out and Sulla agreed to lift iustitium  Redistribution proposal passed and reassigned Mithridates to Marius while Sulla was in Campania tying up the Social Wars

13  Very successful in the Social Wars  Elected to consul in 88  Well earned  If he accepted reassignment, he ruined all of his hard-earned political prospects  Knew that if he opposed it, he would have to take the law into his own hands

14  Marched on Rome with his 6\six legions  Change in Military philosophy under Marius created a new class of citizens and created a loyalty to generals as opposed to Rome itself  Took Marius, Sulpicius, and the senate by surprise  Once in control, Sulla made the senate declare Marius, Sulpicius, and ten others (Marius’ son) enemies of the state because of their violent and rebellious behavior  Only Sulpicius was killed, all others escaped Rome  Canceled all measures passed by Sulpicius after the iustitium  Restored Sulla to Mithridatic command  New citizens were not redistributed  The consuls elected in 87 were not supported by Sulla, but promised that they would uphold his measures  Sulla set out for Asia Minor

15  Consul elected in 87  Took up cause of redistributing new citizens again  Octavius, the other consul was opposed  Cinna decided to leave Rome and travel around Italy gaining support  The senate removed him from consulship and declared him an enemy of Rome  Marius came back from exile to support Cinna  Gained support of Samnites who were still dragging out the Social Wars  Attacked Rome  Octavius was killed and Sulla was outlawed  Sulla had success in Mithridates, but saw that it was advantageous to make peace with him  Cinna planned to meet Sulla in Greece, but Cinna was killed before an major confrontation

16  Sulla returned to Italy and was joined by Crassus (32) and Pompey (23)  Rome and most of Italy were initially hostile to Sulla  Gaius Marius (“Young” Marius) was elected to consul – resistance against Sulla  Made a stand against Sulla at Praeneste, and fighting raged all over northern and central Italy during 82  Sulla won a narrow victory at Colline Gate (Rome) in November of 82  Pompey won in each province gaining the nickname “Young Butcher”  Resistance came to an end

17 SullaAnti-Sulla Opposed Redistribution Sulla Octavius Cassus Pompey Supported Redistribution Sulpicius Marius Cinna Samnites “Young” Marius

18  The senate recognized all Sulla’s past actions as legal  Appointed him as dictator  Charged with bringing order back to the state and formulating laws  He could execute anyone without trial  He was not required to submit any legislative proposal to a citizen assembly  No time limit  His goals were to return the state to the condition from over 50 years before (until Tiberius Gracchus)

19  List of individuals who were condemned to death without a trial  Anyone could kill them for a reward  Penalties for those who helped the proscribed to get away  Purpose was to root out those who had opposed Sulla (especially Senators and equites)  people were killed

20  150 members of the senate left  Sulla introduced 450 new members from the equestrian class that had been loyal to him  Doubled the number of quaestors, increased praetors from 6 to 8, left number of consuls at 2  Cursus honorum became much more competative  Reinstituted restrictions on number of offices held in a row and age limits  10 year interval between holding any particular office (impossible to repeat careers of Marius and Cinna)  Lessened the power of the Tribune  Couldn’t run for any other office  Revived restrictions on governors

21  To gain support, he redistributed all citizens granted citizenship in Social wars into the 35 tribes  Confiscated land to settle his veterans (80,000 men)  Sulla believed that Rome’s greatest threat was a commander who could persuade his troops to attack their own city – the shorter the command the better

22  He resigned dictatorship by the end of 81  Elected consul in 80  Retired and died in 78  Strengths: Sulla regarded the senate in the Rome of the 1 st century to be weak  Reinforced certain Republican ideals  Wanted to equip the state with stable leadership  Limitations: proscriptions and land redistribution created huge social dislocation


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