2 Roman Senate 200 B.C. Roman senate and Patricians controlled Gov’t Plebeians gained right to elect tribunes (10) to protect their interestsTribunes could veto (block) laws
3 Unrest The senate bought out small peasant owners land Caused a number of poor individuals to drift to the city of Rome.Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus- Tribunes who were killed by senators for urging them to give land back to the poor
4 Marius and SullaGeneral Marius promised land to the poor if they joined army and swore allegiance to himSenate employs General Sulla to seize control of the army and defeat Marius Civil War!Sulla wins with better trained Army
5 First TriumvirateThree Men- Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar divide power over empireTriumvirate- a Gov’t ruled by three people.
6 Power struggle Caesar commanded in Gaul Pompey commanded Spain Crassus commanded SyriaIn 53 B.C. Crassus was killed in battleLeads to senate asking Pompey to rule Rome and Caesar to surrenderCaesar is popular with Plebs
7 Caesar takes controlCaesar Crosses the Rubicon river heading back to Rome no turning backIn 45 B.C. Caesar won a civil war in Rome and became the first dictator
8 Death of Caesar While dictator Caesar gave land to the poor Kept senate but added members to diminish powerIn 44 B.C. he was assassinated- Senators believed Caesar wanted to remain dictator for life.
9 The second triumvirate Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus formed the second triumvirateEventually Octavian (Caesars nephew) and Antony took control
10 Battle for RomeAntony allies himself with the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra VIIBattle of Actium- Octavian Crushes Antony’s navy and army.Antony and Cleopatra return to Egypt where they commit suicide.Octavian becomes Emperor Augustus