Presentation on theme: "Roman Republic 7b 50’s BC The end of the Triumvirate."— Presentation transcript:
Roman Republic 7b 50’s BC The end of the Triumvirate
In 56 BCE Triumvirate renewed in Luca (in presence of 200 senators – their clients) –all 3 to have pro-consular imperium (Pompey previously dominated) Caesar’s imperium in Gaul renewed, Pompey – Spain, Crassus – Syria – each for 5 yrs. –Opposition to them was to be eliminated Ahenobarbus (optimate wanting to recall Caesar to answer for his illegal laws in 59) forced not to stand for consul; Cato lost election for Praetor; Pompey & Crassus became consuls for 55BC; Cicero forced to deliver a speech praising Caesar’s achievements in the senate. Failed on their demand that Clodius’ violence (backed by optimates) be reigned in Optimate opposition grew – and the alliance ends –54BC Julia (Pompey’s wife) died in childbirth, and he refused another marriage alliance with Caesar –53BC Crassus was killed in the battle of Carrhae vs Parthia in eastern Turkey. wanted a victory to match his fellow triumvirs, but Parthians killed him & son and 7 legions lost (Chinese town of Li-Sein) the loss of the legion’s ‘eagles’ and capture of 1000 legionaires was a deep humiliation to Rome for generations. –Optimates enticed Pompey into a marriage with an old grand optimate family, He became Consul, with his new optimate father-in-law: the Triumvirate was dead Meanwhile Caesar scores big-time in Gaul (The Gallic Wars). –celtic Helvetii’s migration south in 58BC into N Italy pushed by German tribes to their north. Caesar forced them to return to their lands in Switzerland. –They were to buffer Italy against the Germans. They now turned on Gaul, and a Rome-friendly Gaulish tribe asked for Roman help – Caesar’s excuse for war He drove a German tribe back across the Rhine, & returned to N. Gaul bringing the Belgi under his control. –He stayed in Trans-Alpine Gaul (S. France), conquering a new province –When a gallic tribe (Veneti) in the west rebelled he defeated them and sold them into slavery He crossed into Britain in 55 BC saying Britons were helping the Veneti, but had to return to Gaul. He crossed again the next year, made some gains, but revolting Gauls due to a poor harvest forced his withdrawal. Meanwhile in 55BC two more German tribes crossed the Rhine, he chased them back across. –in 52BC ALL Gaul revolted under Vercingetorix after a genocidal Roman reprisal against a 53BC revolt. –He was defeated at the Battle of Alesia 52, held for 6 yrs & strangled in Caesar’s Triumph (46BC)
Pompey as sole consul, Caesar isolated – 52-50BC Pompey drifted towards the optimate faction from 52BC –Clodius attempting to win praetorship, was murdered & Bubulous suggested Pompey as a sole consul to restore order. Cato agreed, Cicero (defending the murderer) was too scared of Pompey to speak. –Pompey and his new optimate father-in-law become consuls in 52BC –Optimates move to check Caesar’s ambition for another consulship in 50BC –Pompey seems to be favourable to Caesar as he made him exempt from a law which required consuls to present themselves in person in Rome, and which would have ruled Caesar out the following year. –Passed a law preventing a consul from having pro-consul appointment for 5 yrs. Trying to stop prospective consuls raising loans for bribing voters then repaying by fleecing provincials the next year. –A problem for Caesar as he needed to have uninterrupted imperium to avoid legal attacks he would run out of imperium in 50BC. After Caesar’s 52BC victory against Vercingetorex and the Gauls –Even more popular & wealthy, so in 51BC an optimate consul summoned him to Rome to answer legal issues from his 59BC consulate (‘Julius & Caesar’). Pompey met Caesar in 51BC and compromised not to lose his Gaul command before 50BC Both Pompey & Caesar were afraid to lose their armies as civil war seemed inevitable –Senate voted strongly that C & P resign their commands simultaneously to prevent war, but an optimate tribune vetoed it –Senate gave Pompey command of all legions in Italy –Caesar (supported by tribune Mark Antony) trying to have his command retained, was declared “public enemy” by a senatus consultum ultimatum –Caesar crossed the Rubicon River (Italy’s border signaling a symbolic attack against Rome) “The die is cast” - jacta alea est! Committing treason by breaking Sulla’s law against a proconsul taking his army out of his province. –Interpreted in Rome as ‘starting’ the civil war - January 10 th in 49BC
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