4 2nd Civil War 49-46 BCE– Caesar (the Populares) vs Pompey (the Optimates)
5 Gnaeus Pompeii BCGained recognition in Spain, 77 BC then during the slave revolt of Spartacus (73-71 BC).He joined with Marcus Crassus, the richest man in Rome, -they marched to the gates of Rome and demanded consulships (Pompey was 36!)As Consuls, they canceled Sulla’s “reforms” and retired.
6 Pompey returns...In 67 BCE, the Senate asked Pompey to deal with Pirates in the Med Sea and renewed fighting with King MithradatesReturning in 62 BCE, Pompey asked for land grants to his soldiers, which was rejected by the Senate.Such shortsightedness drove Pompey into an alliance with Julius Caesar.
7 Julius Caesar, 100-44 BCE Dad died when 15 At 17- married Cornelius Cinna’s daughterAt 18- Sulla proscribed his death!20- Roman soldier in Bythnia21- lawyer in Rome22- Set out to RhodesCareer: held various administrative postsAt 38 – appointed governor of Spain
8 Legacy: brought western Europe into the mainstream of civilization Governor of Spain, returned to Rome in 60 BC- intending to run for consul-Senate said no!Teamed up with Pompey and Crassus to form the 1st Triumverate and became a consul in 60 BCEAfter his term as consul, he took governorship over two northern territories (Gaul) and initiated the Gallic WarsLegacy: brought western Europe into the mainstream of civilizationRecognizing the military command was a prerequisite for political prominence, Caesar gained command of the legions in Gaul in 59 BC and began its conquest, bringing the future France into the roman orbit and Greco-Roman civilization and invaded Britain.His wars are brilliantly described in The CommentariesSenate, ever jealous, feared Caesar would use his fame and power to seize control of the state.
9 Caesar’s Gallic Wars, 58 – 52 BCE Caesar’s victories over the Gauls (Celts) were incredible… sending back to Rome untold wealth from plunder and almost one million slaves with another million counted as dead. (#’s are debatable!)While fighting in Gaul, the Triumverate fell apart. Crassus died in 53 BC in a disastrous campaign against the Parthians.Pompeii, who had married Caesar’s daughter Julia, broke from their relationship when she died in childbirth. (He had loved his teenage b ride and many complained he neglected his role as protector of the senate because he spent so much time with her.The split came because Pompeii too was jealous of Caesar and the senate convinced him to align with them in the inevitable battle with Caesar.Caesar was recalled to rome without an army- he ignored, went to rome and a civil war ensued which he won.
10 Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar, 52 BC (after the Battle of Alesia) The painting depicts the surrender of the Gallic chieftain after the Battle of Alesia (52 BC). Note that one of the warriors (bottom left) has a torque around his neck. In fact, the torque was reserved only for gods and important members of a royal family. The depiction of Gauls with long hair and mustaches is also called into question today. The horse is a Percheron, although at this time this breed was not in Gaul. In addition, the Gauls rode bareback, but here the horse is saddled and harnessed. The rectangular shield also does not accord with the time when they were mostly oval. Finally, there is an anachronistic representation of a castle on fire.Date1899The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September, 52 BC near Alesia, a major town centre and hill fort of the Mandubii tribe. It was fought by an army of the Roman Republic commanded by Julius Caesar, aided by cavalry commanders Mark Antony, Titus Labienus and Gaius Trebonius, against a confederation of Gallic tribes united under the leadership of Vercingetorix of the Arverni. It was the last major engagement between Gauls and Romans, marking the turning point of the Gallic Wars in favour of Rome. The Siege of Alesia is considered one of Caesar's greatest military achievements and a classic example of siege warfare and investment. The battle of Alesia can safely be described as marking the end of Celtic dominance in France, Belgium, Switzerland and Northern Italy.At one point in the battle the Romans were outnumbered by the Gauls by four to one. The event is described by several contemporary authors, including Caesar himself in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico. After the Roman victory, Gaul (very roughly modern France) was subdued and became a Roman province. The refusal of the Roman senate to allow Caesar the honour of a triumph for his victory in the Gallic Wars eventually led, in part, to the Roman Civil War of 49–45 BC.Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar, 52 BC (after the Battle of Alesia)
11 Fearing his rising power, the Senate recalled Caesar… without his army! When Caesar crossed the Rubicon river in 49 BCE, he started a civil war.Pompey was convinced by Senate leaders to come out of retirement and defend the Senate
12 2nd Civil War 49-46 BCE– Caesar (the Populares) vs Pompey (the Optimates)
13 Caesar defeated Pompey- Battle of Pharsalus (48 BCE) then followed him to Egypt where Pompey hoped for allies.
14 After Pharsalus, Pompey escaped to Egypt with Caesar chasing him only to be assassinated.
15 Caesar & CleopatraCaesar restored Cleopatra to power, gave her a son (Caesarion), then returned with her to Rome in 46 BCECleopatra has been a focus of attention for over 2,000 years: demonised as the courtesan of the Nile, idealised as a tragic figure whose disastrous love plunged her ancient culture, thousands of years old, into the abyss. Of all the legends that have grown up around her exciting life, the account of her first meeting with Julius Caesar is certainly one of the most appealing. As the story goes, in the autumn of the year 48 BC she commanded her faithful servant Apollodorus to row her to Alexandria harbour in a small boat by night and to smuggle her into the palace wrapped in a carpet, past the guards placed there by her brother and enemy Ptolemy XIII, and into Caesar’s apartments. The reason for Caesar’s visit was to mediate in the conflict between the two siblings for the Egyptian throne. The supposed gift was unrolled in Caesar’s room, revealing the scantily clad 21- year-old queen lying at his feet. It was an offer the 52-year-old Caesar could not refuse; his weakness for beautiful women was well known. Cleopatra employed all her intelligence, ambition and charm so successfully that Caesar finally helped her to bring the struggle for the throne to a favourable conclusion.
17 Caesar: “dictator for life” Pardoned Senators but raised members to 900Gave public land to his soldiers and the poorGranted citizenship to provincesRaised pay of soldiersReorganized town governments and the courtsLowered taxes on provincesStarted building projectsHis reforms were designed to create order out of chaos.Lowered taxes iof provincialsMade governors of provinces answerable to himRestrained wealthy businessmen from draining wealth from the provincesExtended citizenshipBegan public works programsRelocated 100,000 retired soldiers to provinces where he gave them landReorganized town governmentReformed the courts***Planned to codify the laws
18 Caesar’s assassination and the 2nd Triumverate March 15, 44 BCMarc Antony joined with Octavian and Lepidus to defeat Brutus, Cassius & the other conspiratorsBoth Antony and Octavian wanted to be number 1The Senate believed they were saving the Republic from a lifelong dictatorship. Moreover, they saw Caesar trying to establish a Hellenistic type of monarchy when the assassinated him on March 15, 44 BCThe 2nd Triumverate fought a civil war against Brutus and Cassius, issued proscriptions- property confiscated and death to outlaws.