Presentation on theme: "Key Terms – The Later Roman Empire Proletariat The Twelve Tables The Gracchi Brothers Marius Sulla Pompey Crassus the Rich Julius Caesar Brutus and Cassius."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms – The Later Roman Empire Proletariat The Twelve Tables The Gracchi Brothers Marius Sulla Pompey Crassus the Rich Julius Caesar Brutus and Cassius Octavian/Augustus Caesar Marc Antony Lepidus Triumvirate Pax Romana Aqueducts
Post Punic Wars Several areas of Italy laid in ruins upon the end of the Punic Wars Many soldiers lost their land due to damages and unpaid taxes Many of these soldiers sought work on the lands of the wealthy Slaves had taken up many of the jobs that the soldiers sought These soldiers would surround Rome and threaten its citizens → this group would become the lowest class in Rome, the proletariat.
The Twelve Tables To ensure the rights of the lower classes, the Senate codified its laws. These codified laws became known as the Twelve Tables. The Twelve Tables allowed intermarriage between the classes and opened up jobs for the lower classes
The Gracchi Brothers Two tribunes attempted to bring equality and reform to the lower classes. Tiberius Gracchus → attempted to bring land reform to the lower classes through a land distribution system, would be killed for his attempts to continue his tribunate. Gaius Gracchus → would attempt to continue the reforms of his brother and would share the same fate. Marked the first time the Roman government used violence against its officials.
Marius Marius → Roman general who served during the Punic Wars. Would privatize his army by offering them more money for conquest of territory. Would use his army to control Rome and have himself elected consul seven times.
Sulla Sulla → general during the Numidian campaigns who followed Marius' example. Would fight with Marius over control of Rome with his own private army. Would become dictator for life and then resign.
Pompey Pompey → military officer who used difficult situations in Rome to acquire power for himself. Could not gain the power he wanted in Rome unless he associated with more upstanding individuals. Would work closely with Crassus and Caesar.
Crassus the Rich Crassus the Rich → wealthy landowner who sought to acquire power in Rome Lacked any military experience (prestige) to be able to acquire any major positions in Rome. Would have to unite with someone who had already been in politics to acquire power.
Julius Caesar Julius Caesar → military general and orator who became consul but fell into disrepute. Needed someone to back his actions in Rome with military force. Would unite with Crassus and Pompey to reach his career goals.
The First Triumvirate Triumvirate → rule by three individuals at once. Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey united to acquire what they wanted from the Roman government. Pompey could get his actions ratified by Caesar; Caesar could back his actions with the military force from Pompey; Crassus could use both Caesar and Pompey to acquire military experience. Upon the death of Crassus, the triumvirate would dissolve leaving Pompey and Casear to fight amongst each other.
Caesar and Pompey Pompey would attempt to sway the Senate against Caesar to acquire more power for himself. Caesar was out campaigning in Gaul attempting to acquire more territory for the Romans. Caesar would be asked to return to Rome without his troops and surrender. Caesar would refuse and march on Rome and take over the city → Pompey would fight Caesar then flee to Egypt where he would be killed.
The Rise and Fall of Julius Caesar Julius Caesar would become the one and only ruler of Rome and would be declared dictator for life. Shortly afterward, he would be assassinated by Brutus and Cassius on March 15, 44 B.C.
The Second Triumvirate - Three new Romans would compete over control of Rome and would ultimately work together. - Marc Antony → general under Julius Caesar, believed he would inherit his powers - Lepidus → Roman officer who sought to acquire more power by working with Octavian and Antony - Octavian → Caesar's grand-nephew, inherited Caesar's power.
The Triumvirate Breaks Down - Lepidus would attempt to take power away from Octavian and would ultimately be forced into exile by him. - Antony would build his own empire in the East and would enter into relations with Cleopatra in Egypt; would be declared enemy of the state as a result. - Octavian would defeat Antony in the Battle of Actium and acquire sole possession of Caesar's powers. - Would be given the title of Augustus which means “first citizen”
Augustus' Reforms - Augustus would reign as emperor until the age of 76. - In his time as emperor, he would launch many reforms: - built aqueducts → bridge- like structures that carried water from the mountains to the cities. - introduced a new currency - built roads to connect the empire - started the Pax Romana → period of 207 years without civil war.