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Rome was a Republic For about 500 years…. Outstanding soldier & political maverick Unprecedented 6 terms Army reforms (poor) volunteers long-term veterans.

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Presentation on theme: "Rome was a Republic For about 500 years…. Outstanding soldier & political maverick Unprecedented 6 terms Army reforms (poor) volunteers long-term veterans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rome was a Republic For about 500 years…

2 Outstanding soldier & political maverick Unprecedented 6 terms Army reforms (poor) volunteers long-term veterans bonus Marius

3 State supplied equipment (it had to) Soldiers devote all their time to training Soldiers get land for own farms at the end Reluctant & inefficient peasant draftees > more efficient professional army Army loyal to its general, not the state Army Reforms

4 Sulla Distinguished self in Social War Sulla vs Marius army used against fellow citizens long civil war massacre opponents Takes absolute power

5 Restored (& increased) Senates power restored right to veto acts of the Assembly limited power of tribunes & Assembly reduced military power of provincial governors increased Senate membership to 600 Sullas Dictatorship

6 Pompey -- powerful, popular general Crassus -- rich, ambitious senator Julius Caesar -- skilled young politician Senate standing in the way of what each wants The First Triumvirate

7 Pompey Crassus Caesar Senate standing in the way of what each wants Together, theyre able to get these things The First Triumvirate Got elected by promising to: restore power of tribunes restore equestrians to courts Repealed Sullas reforms Work together for military commands to earn reputation, support, & army to rival Pompey

8 Caesars conquest of Gaul ( BCE) wealth, fame, military power worries Senate, Pompey 51-ish BCE Pompey made sole consol 49 BCE Caesar ordered to return Civil war… Caesars Rise to Power Victory for Caesar!

9 Appointed dictator for 10 years; then, for life Reforms: give land in provinces to peasants, veterans grant citizenship to many tax reforms deal with debt situation Government Under Caesar

10 Reforms: stronger regulation of free grain public works projects fixed the calendar increased Senate to 900 Government Under Caesar increases the control he has over them

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13 Lifelong dictatorship is the last straw March 15, 44 BCE (the Ides of March) Group of 60-ish senators, led by Cassius and Brutus (Et tu, Brute?) Stabbed 23 times Death of Caesar More civil war

14 Cicero: Our tyrant deserves his death, [for his] was the blackest crime of all. [Caesar was] a man who was ambitious to be king of the Roman people and master of the whole world…. The man who maintains that such an ambition is morally right is a madman, for he justifies the destruction of law and liberty. Death of Caesar

15 Mark Antony OctavianLepidus The three triumvirs split up the Empire between them BrutusCassius West Africa East In 42 BCE, the triumviral army defeats Brutus & Cassius

16 Mark Antony OctavianLepidus Not long afterwards, Lepidus is taken out of the picture Mark Antony & Octavian struggle for power; by 32 BCE, all pretense at cooperation drops Cleopatra

17 Octavian Mark Antony Conflict of East vs West, Rome vs Alexandria Intrigues and propaganda In 31 BCE, Octavians general, Agrippa, wins a decisive victory against Antony & Cleopatra Cleopatra They flee to Egypt, but are hunted down; they commit suicide in Alexandria

18 Octavian Octavian emerges as master of the Roman world! He has enormous power, but an enormous task ahead of him

19 Pompeys Conquests

20 Crassus killed (53 BCE) in military campaign Julia (Caesars daughter, Pompeys wife) dies Triumvirate Falls Apart


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