Presentation on theme: "1865-1877. Key Essential Questions 1.Should the South be punished or forgiven? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 3."— Presentation transcript:
Key Essential Questions 1.Should the South be punished or forgiven? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
The Const. does not state which branch of gov. handles readmission in the case of seceesion.
President Lincoln’s Plan Key Aspects President Lincoln’s Plan Key Aspects 10% Plan – How to “get back in” (Although really, you never left) * Pardon to all who were willing to pledge Union loyalty with the exception of highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officials. * 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election must take an oath of loyalty and established new government * States must accept the 13 th Amendment (Which did what?)
13 th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Freedmen’s Bureau School Lincoln helped to pass the 13 th Amendment (ending slavery) and establish the Freedmen’s Bureau, which provided education, healthcare, and job assistance to newly freed African Americans.
Congress (Rep) wanted harsher punishment : (AND Congress was not going to let the Exec. Branch run Reconstruction) THE WADE-DAVIS BILL (1864) An oath of allegiance by a majority of each states white men (not merely 10 %). New governments to be formed only by those who never took arms against the North. Permanent disfranchisement of Confed. leaders. Passed Congress; Pocket Vetoed by Lincoln (didn’t sign bill). Lincoln hoped to negotiate a compromise...
Self-made man from Tenn. Jacksonian Democrat Championed poor whites 1857 – U.S. Senator Remained loyal to the Union when Tennessee left! 1862 – appointed Military Gov of Tennessee. 1864 – chosen as Lincoln’s running mate as a gesture of good will. Despised the corrupt aristocracy of the North & southern plantation elite. Supporter of poor whites; not enslaved blacks
1) Amnesty to all Southerners who took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution except for: a) high ranking Confederates b) wealthy & elite planters (those worth more than $20,000 must apply to president personally for a pardon... He granted approx. 13,000 pardons) 2) Appointed Prov. Gov. for southern states requiring that these states: a) revoke ordinances of secession b) “repudiate” debts—as in, don’t expect to be paid for war loss c) ratify the 13 th Amendment
Black Codes Laws passed by Southern States denying ex-slaves civil rights Purpose: * Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations Details: * Blacks could not congregate, carry weapons, marry whites, youth must be “apprenticed” and former owners had first dibs...
Same old same old in the South; -New elections Confederate gov back in place ! (AJ pardoned most of the elite) - Black codes essentially restored slavery in all but name *Before Congress returned from recess (mid 1865), AJ declared Reconstruction complete!
(Republican) Congress vs. the President Upon return in Dec. 1865, Congress refused to seat New Southern Congressional delegates. Johnson: vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill (“gave blacks too many benefits”) vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act (Citizenship rights for blacks) (Too much “centralization”— leave this to the states) “This is a country for white men, and by God, as long as I am President, it shall be government for white men” Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1 st in U. S. history!! Wins a 3-1 majority in mid-term (1866) elections! NOW CONGRESS WAS IN CHARGE
14 th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. * Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. * Insure against neo-Confederate political power. * Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy. Southern states would be punished for denying the rights to black citizens!
Divide the south into 5 military districts to be under the command of a Union general. Ratify 14 th Amendment Re-elect state gov’ts, including African American vote( 15 th Amendment)
15 th Amendment Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. (Poll taxes, grandfather clauses, literacy tests will quickly undermine this amendment)
Blacks in Southern Politics Blacks could register and vote in S. states as of 1867 under the Republican plan (temporarily). 700 African Americans elected to state offices, 16 Congressmen.
Radical Reconstruction Congress looked to secure its control: Tenure of Office Act * The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government, especially Sec. of State Edwin Stanton Edwin Stanton
Feb. 1868 – Johnson formally dismissed Stanton The House voted (126—47) to impeach Johnson (Senate trial) on February 24 before even drawing up the official charges. Charged with: “Treason, Bribery, or other High Crimes & Misdemeanors”
Impact of Impeachment 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote). Johnson got the message that—despite his acquittal— Congress was in charge.
Ulysses S. Grant elected President in 1868. 1868-1871 all southern states rejoined Union based on Radical Republican plan. Republican changes: Fifteenth Amendment passed started to eliminate Black Codes built roads and railroads to revive the economy and link the north with the south. Introduced property taxes to create a sense of “equality in taxes” and to pay for Republican reform programs Began to fund public education believing it was foundation for democratic order.
The KKK began under Johnson’s rule many freedmen lived in fear and remained submissive to white—afraid to pursue their “freedoms”.
4 million African-Americans (former slaves) were free They had no money & no education - Sharecroppers, or tenant farmers, turned over about ½ of crops in exchange for land, housing, seed, & fertilizer—often led to debt that was nearly impossible to overcome. - Did allow freemen to work without gang labor, supervision, fines, punishment or regulation of private lives. - Some success stories where freemen were able to own land
Grant Administration (1868) Grant presided over an era of unprecedented corruption. * “Whiskey Ring” * Tammany Ring * Credit Mobilier * Panic of 1873
The Abandonment of Reconstruction Northern gov’t preoccupied with corrupt Grant administration Panic of 1873 [6-year depression]. Republican state gov’ts in south couldn’t seem to keep the peace. By 1876, all state gov’ts except for SC, LA, and FL were again controlled by Southern Democrats (thanks to the KKK and waning Northern interest).
Rutherford B. Hayes (R) - Governor of Ohio - boring, colorless, untainted - a safe choice - favored “home-rule” Samuel Tilden (D) - NY lawyer - Wealthy - Favored “home-rule” - Focused on the corruption of the Rep. party and Grant Administration.
1876 Presidential Election Election was extremely close; Tilden was one electoral vote away from winning- won popular vote 19 electoral votes in dispute. Fl, SC, and LA sent in two set of electoral votes! Election was at a stalemate
ELECTION WAS EXTREMELY CLOSE; TILDEN WAS ONE ELECTORAL VOTE AWAY FROM WINNING- WON POPULAR VOTE 20 ELECTORAL VOTES IN DISPUTE. FL, SC, AND LA SENT IN TWO SET OF ELECTORAL VOTES! ELECTION WAS AT A STALEMATE
32 News of contested election results began to circulate around the country in the early hours of November 8. The electoral votes of South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana would decide the election. Congress appointed an electoral commission (!?) to settle the question (8 Republicans, 7 Democrats). They awarded the votes to Hayes (R)... And federal troops were removed from the South. Hmm...
33 SC, FL, and LA suddenly dropped their “dispute” On March 2, 1877, Rutherford B. Hayes (R) was declared President of the United States, bringing an end to the four month debate. Within days, remaining federal troops were removed from the south, leaving freedmen with no protection...