5Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)Gov’t organization that provided food, clothing, healthcare and education to black and white refugees from SouthTo relieve “destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children”
6Plenty to eat and nothing to do. Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern EyesPlenty to eat and nothing to do.
8Wartime– Presidential– Congress Plans forReconstructionWartime– Presidential– Congress
913th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
10Lincoln’s Wartime Plan Pardon to all who took an oath of loyalty & accepted the 13th amendmentEXCEPT highest ranking Confederate officers. (military & civilian)When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath and est. a gov’t, it would be recognized.Lincoln claimed the right to direct Reconstruction under the clause that set forth the presidential power to grant pardons and under the constitutional obligation of the US to guarantee each state a republican form of government
11Lincoln’s Assassination Shot in the head by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 at Ford’s Theatre in Washington D.C.The assassination occurred five days after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox.
12President Andrew Johnson 17th (1865 – 1869)Pro-Union Democrat.Anti-Aristocrat. (supports small farms)White Supremacist.“Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!”
13Johnson’s Presidential Plan 10% of state’s voters - oath to the US Constitutionamnesty with simple oath to all EXCEPT:Confederate officersthose with property over $20,000 (wealthy planters)(could apply directly to Johnson for pardon – 13,500 pardoned)new constitutions must ratify the 13th amendment1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates.2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations.EFFECTS3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
1514th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people.Insure against neo-Confederate political power.Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy.Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
16Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction States cannot deprive anyone of citizenship or voting (13th & 14th)NO Confederate officer or military leader could hold political officeMilitary Reconstruction Act - The south would be occupied by federal troops and divided into 5 military districts governed by army generalsRadical (Congressional) Reconstruction2nd Reconstruction Act – army commanders to register all adult men who swore they were qualified3rd Reconstruction Act – go beyond the loyalty oath and remove / replace office holders if any existing
18Congress Breaks with the President Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates.February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill.March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes with a 2/3rd majority 1st in U. S. history!!
19Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Tenure of Office ActThe President could not remove any officials without the Senate’s consentDesigned to protect members of Lincoln’s cabinetEdwin Stanton
20President Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson removed Sec of War StantonThe Republican dominated House passed articles of impeachment
21Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one vote short of required 2/3s vote). Lawyers argued that Lincoln, not Johnson, had appointed Stanton, so the Tenure of Office Act did not apply to himJohnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one vote short of required 2/3s vote).Final act of president was to pardon Jefferson Davis
22Blacks in Southern Politics Core voters were black veterans. (literate)Blacks were politically unprepared.The 15th amendment guaranteed voting
27The Fifteenth Amendment ( Amendment XV ) of the United States Constitution provides that no government in the United States may prevent a citizen from voting based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude (i.e. slavery). It was ratified on February 3, 1870.Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the right to vote.
28Scandals:Credit Mobilier – people took advantage of the Pacific RailroadThe Sec of War was taking bribes – impeached & removedNo evidence of Grant being involved, but his choice of associates earn him widespread criticism
321876 Presidential Election Disputed votesFlorida, Louisiana, & South Carolina (intimidation of Republican voters)Congress unable to determine the outcome.A Committee of Senators, Congressmen and a Supreme Court Judge decide
33The Political Crisis of 1877 Compromise of 1877Election of 1876Demos. gave presidency to Repub. Hayesin return troops would be removed from the southReconstruction is OVER!!