Presentation on theme: "The End Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House.Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House."— Presentation transcript:
The End Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House.Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House. Grant did not allow celebration because the southern soldiers were once again U.S. citizens.Grant did not allow celebration because the southern soldiers were once again U.S. citizens.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) Gov’t organization that provided food, clothing, healthcare and education to black and white refugees from South
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
Wartime– Presidential– Congress
13 th Amendment Ratified in December, Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Lincoln’s Wartime Plan 10% Plan * Pardon to all who took an oath of loyalty & accepted the 13 th amendment * EXCEPT highest ranking Confederate officers. (military & civilian) * When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath and est. a gov’t, it would be recognized.
Lincoln’s Assassination Shot in the head by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 at Ford’s Theatre in Washington D.C.Shot in the head by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 at Ford’s Theatre in Washington D.C. The assassination occurred five days after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox. The assassination occurred five days after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox.
President Andrew Johnson 17 th (1865 – 1869) Pro-Union Democrat. Anti-Aristocrat. (supports small farms) White Supremacist. “Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!”
Johnson’s Presidential Plan 10% of state’s voters - oath to the US Constitution amnesty with simple oath to all EXCEPT: Confederate officers those with property over $20,000 (wealthy planters) (could apply directly to Johnson for pardon – 13,500 pardoned) new constitutions must ratify the 13 th amendment EFFECTS 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations. 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
14 th Amendment Ratified in July, * Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. * Insure against neo-Confederate political power. * Enshrine the national debt while repudiating that of the Confederacy. Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
Radical (Congressional) Reconstruction States cannot deprive anyone of citizenship or voting (13 th & 14 th ) NO Confederate officer or military leader could hold political office Military Reconstruction Act - The south would be occupied by federal troops and divided into 5 military districts governed by army generals
Johnson’s Issues: Johnson’s Issues:
Congress Breaks with the President Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates. February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill. March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act. Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes with a 2/3 rd majority 1 st in U. S. history!!
Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Tenure of Office Act * The President could not remove any officials without the Senate’s consent Designed to protect members of Lincoln’s cabinet Edwin Stanton
President Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson removed Sec of War Stanton The Republican dominated House passed articles of impeachment
Lawyers argued that Lincoln, not Johnson, had appointed Stanton, so the Tenure of Office Act did not apply to him Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one vote short of required 2/3s vote).
Blacks in Southern Politics Core voters were black veterans. (literate) Blacks were politically unprepared. The 15 th amendment guaranteed voting
Black Senate & House Delegates
Black & White Political Participation
Colored Rule in the South?
The Fifteenth Amendment ( Amendment XV ) of the United States Constitution provides that no government in the United States may prevent a citizen from voting based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude (i.e. slavery). It was ratified on February 3, provides that no government in the United States may prevent a citizen from voting based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude (i.e. slavery). It was ratified on February 3, Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the right to vote.
Scandals: Credit Mobilier – people took advantage of the Pacific RailroadCredit Mobilier – people took advantage of the Pacific Railroad The Sec of War was taking bribes – impeached & removedThe Sec of War was taking bribes – impeached & removed No evidence of Grant being involved, but his choice of associates earn him widespread criticismNo evidence of Grant being involved, but his choice of associates earn him widespread criticism
1876 Presidential Tickets
1876 Presidential Election Disputed votesDisputed votes –Florida, Louisiana, & South Carolina (intimidation of Republican voters) Congress unable to determine the outcome.Congress unable to determine the outcome. A Committee of Senators, Congressmen and a Supreme Court Judge decideA Committee of Senators, Congressmen and a Supreme Court Judge decide
The Political Crisis of 1877 Compromise of 1877 Election of 1876 The Political Crisis of 1877 Compromise of 1877 Election of Demos. gave presidency to Repub. Hayes 2.in return troops would be removed from the south 3.Reconstruction is OVER!!
Alas, the Woes of Childhood… Sammy Tilden—Boo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayes’s got my Presidency, and he won’t give it to me!